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Title:    Levels of major, minor and trace elements in commercially available enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.), Cheesman) food products (Kocho and Bulla) in Ethiopia
Authors:    Atlabachew, Minaleshewa; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh;
Year:    2008
Journal:    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis    545-552    21(7)
Abstract:
Kocho and Bulla are starchy foods obtained from fermenting edible part of the leaf sheath and corm of enset plant (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.), Cheesman). In the present study, the levels of selected metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, and Pb) in Kocho and Bulla sampled from different markets of Woliso (Oromiya region) and Welkite (SNNPRG) of Ethiopia were analyzed. Known weight of oven-dried Kocho and Bulla samples were wet-digested using 2 mL of (69-72%) HNO3and 2 mL of (70%) HClO4for 2 h at variable temperature (120-270 C). The contents of the minerals in the digests were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The following concentrations (mean∓95% confidence limit) (?g/g) were tred in Kocho and Bulla, respectively: K (3567∓16) and (792∓4); Na (575∓3) and (422∓4); Ca (541∓7) and (416∓4); Mg (235∓10) and (74∓1); Fe (114∓5) and (48.2∓1.3); Zn (29∓0.6) and (19.2∓0.7); Cu (3.85∓0.25) and (2.77∓0.17); Mn (9.34∓0.28) and (2.99∓0.14); Ni (5.61∓0.29) and (4.0∓0.2); Cr (5.73∓0.15) and (5.38∓0.22); Co (5.8∓0.14) and (5.45∓0.27). The toxic metals Cd and Pb were not detected in both types of foodstuffs. The concentration of K was highest followed by Na, Ca, and Mg in both foodstuffs. From trace elements analyzed, Zn was found to be highest next to Fe. Generally, Kocho contained higher concentration compared to Bulla for the majority of the mineral nutrients determined. In general, Kocho and Bulla are rich in Ca and Zn compared to other similar foodstuffs and contains comparable concentration of Cu, Fe, and Mn. Besides Kocho and Bulla are free of heavy metal (Cd and Pb) contaminations compared to others. ? 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Title:    Determinants of crop diversity and composition in enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Abebe, Tesfaye;
Year:    2013
Journal:    Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics    29-38    114(1)
Abstract:
Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) and Enset ( Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman), are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern Ethiopia to determine the factors that influence the diversity and composition of crops in the systems. Data were collected from 144 sample homegardens selected from four districts. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to relate indices of crop diversity and area share of major crops with the physical and socioeconomic factors. The study revealed that socioeconomic factors, mainly proximity to markets, affected negatively crop species richness. The production area of the main crops enset and coffee decreased with increasing proximity to market and road while that of maize and khat increased. At household level, farm size had a significant effect on area share of enset and coffee. As farm size increased the share of the cash crop, coffee increased but that of the staple, enset declined. Enset, which is the backbone of the system in terms of food security, is declining on small farms and the share of monoculture maize system is increasing. The trend towards declining agrobiodiversity, and reduction in the production area of the main perennial crops and their gradual replacement with monoculture fields could make the systems liable to instability and collapse. As these sites are high potential agricultural areas, intensification can be achieved by integrating high-value and more productive crops, such as fruits, spices and vegetables, while maintaining the integrated and complex nature of the systems.
Title:    Land-use dynamics in enset-based agroforestry homegardens in Ethiopia
Authors:    Abebe, Tesfaye; Bongers, Frans;
Year:    2012
Journal:    Forest-People Interfaces: Understanding Community Forestry and Biocultural Diversity    69-85    
Abstract:
In many tropical countries homegardens sustain large numbers of people. Households depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own gardens. Such homegardens combine production with the maintenance of biodiversity. Long-term sustainability of the system is crucial for the long-term wellbeing of the population, including food security. The enset-coffee system of Southern Ethiopia is an example of such agroforestry homegardens. Enset is the main food crop and coffee is the main cash crop. We analysed the homegardens of 144 households covering a range of geographical conditions. Household wealth status was the main determinant of homegarden size. In total, 198 species of cultivated crops (78) and trees (120) were found. Enset and crops were represented by 42 and 24 cultivars respectively. The homegardens were covered by around one-third of enset and one-third of coffee. Enset provides the backbone of the system as it provides food security. Our results show that the stability of the system depends both on its diversity and on the specific characteristics of the two main crops, enset and coffee. The enset-coffee homegardens are changing as farmers increasingly make individual choices and respond to emerging challenges and opportunities. The dynamics of the agroforestry homegarden of Southern Ethiopia can be considered as a productive bricolage process on the micro scale.
Title:    Pregelatinized Enset Starch As A Tablet Binder : Evaluation Of Granule
Authors:    Abrham Wondimu & Tsige Gebre-Mariam;
Year:    2014
Journal:    International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Research IJAPR    39-45    5(1)
Abstract:
The aim of this study is evaluation of properties of parcetamol granules prepared by using pregelatinized enset starch as a binder. In this study pregelatinaized enset starch was prepared and used as a granulating agent at different concentrations. The mucilage of pregelatinized enset starch was prepared by reconstituting the starch in cold water. Native enset starch and Starch 1500? were used for comparative purpose. Properties of paracetamol granules such as size distribution, bulk density, tap density, Carr?s index, Hussner ratio, flow rate, angle of repose and friability were investigated. The results indicated that the mean granule size and proportion of larger granules prepared by all the granulating agents at higher concentrations (7.5 and 10 %) were higher than those granules prepared at lower ones (2.5 and 5 %). Both bulk and tap densities of paracetamol granules generally decreased with increase in binder concentration. It is also observed that densities of the paracetamol granules made from different type of starches as binder didn?t show consistent trend of variation. The result also showed that all the formulations have Carr?s index below 15% and Hausner ratio less than 1.25. Flow rates of parcetamol granules in this study were ranging from 3.05 - 3.71 g/sec and angle of reposes are below 30 indicating the free flowing property of granules. The percent friabilities of parcetamol granules prepared by using all the three granulating agents at higher concentration (10%) were significantly lower than (p < 0.05) those of granules at lower one (2.5%). From the foregoing it can be concluded that pregelatinized enset starch reconstituted in cold water can be used as granulating agent and it can be considered as a potential tablet binder in wet granulation method.
Title:    Garden tool transmission of xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum on banana (Musa spp.) and enset in Ethiopia
Authors:    Addis, T.; Turyagyenda, L. F.; Alemu, T.; Karamura, E.; Blomme, G.;
Year:    2010
Journal:    Acta Horticulturae    367-372    879
Abstract:
Xanthomonas wilt caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum has been an important constraint to enset (Ensete ventricosum ) and banana (Musa spp.) in Ethiopia. It was postulated that Xanthomonas wilt has a similar epidemiology as other banana bacterial wilts, which are known to be transmitted by insect vectors and garden tools. A study to determine the role of garden tools in the transmission of Xanthomonas wilt was carried out on enset in a greenhouse at the Southern Agricultural Research Institute, Awassa, Ethiopia and on 'Pisang Awak' (AABB genome) in the field at Amaro, Southern Ethiopia. A contaminated knife was used to infect plants. The treatments in the greenhouse trials comprised of cutting: green leaves; broken green leaves; dry leaves; the pseudostem; and roots. Similar treatments were carried out on the field-grown 'Pisang Awak' plants with two additional treatments: desuckering and debudding. Debudding was done by cutting off the male bud with a contaminated machete, while a forked stick was used for control samples. In addition, bacterial ooze was smeared on fresh and dry flower and bract scars at the male part of inflorescences. All plants treated with a contaminated machete: enset and banana when cut in the pseudostem; and all banana plants when debudded got infected. Similarly, cutting green leaves and cutting broken green leaves resulted in a high disease transmission of respectively 67 and 62% in banana and 58 and 54% in enset. Similar high transmission rates (90%) were obtained for desuckering on banana. On the other hand, cutting roots with a contaminated machete resulted in low transmission levels, with 20% in bananas and 25% in enset suggesting that tool infections mainly occur above ground. This calls for rigorous tool disinfection, while desuckering and deleafing in highly infected fields should be avoided. Debudding should be carried out with a forked stick.
Title:    Density and distribution on enset root mealybugs on enset
Authors:    Addis, T; Azerefegne, F; Blomme, G;
Year:    2008
Journal:    African Crop Science Journal    67-74    16(1)
Abstract:
The enset root mealybug (Cataenococcus ensete Williams and Matile-Ferrero) has become the most important insect pest of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) in southern Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution and density of enset root mealybugs on enset plants. The distribution of the enset root mealybug on enset roots and corms of the ?Genticha? clone was studied in 2005 on farmers? field at Yirgachefe, southern Ethiopia. An average of 87 adult enset root mealybugs were collected from roots and corms per plant. The majority of the mealybugs inhabited the roots (79%), while 21% was found on the corms. About 99% of the mealybugs were found in the upper 40 cm soil layer. In addition, about 90% of the mealybugs were collected within a 60 cm radius from the plants. The majority of the mealybugs (59%) were found on the upper half of the corm. About 63% of all mealybugs were collected from the corm and on the roots within a 20 cm radius from the corm. Both root and shoot fresh weight had a negative correlation (r2 = 0.58 and 0.92, respectively) with the enset root mealybug population density.
Title:    Bacterial Wilt (Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum) on Enset and Banana in Ethiopia
Authors:    Addis, T; Handoro, F; Blomme, G;
Year:    2004
Journal:    InfoMusa    44-45    13(2)
Abstract:
While conducting an enset (Ensete ventricosum ) and bananas pest and disease survey in banana growing areas, banana bacterial wilt was not reported in the main banana producing region of Arba Minch (1200 m altitude) in southern Ethiopia, where enset is not grown, but in the banana growing region between 1050 and 1700 m altitude in western Ethiopia, bacterial wilt was observed in enset. However, bacterial wilt seemed more common on bananas than on enset. Most farmers indicated the disease has been present for 20 years. In this region, the banana bacterial wilt mainly attacked cultivars Pisang Awak and in some cases Red Abesha. Male bud infection was observed on a large number of Pisang Awak mats in the areas below 1700 m. A few farmers reported infection in their matooke clones. Although widely grown in the region, Dwarf Cavendish cultivar apparently has not been infected. It is believed that the absence of male bud infection is linked to the persistent male bracts, which could constitute a barrier to insect transmission. Scattered banana mats were found in the south-central enset growing region, in areas over 1700 m. Male bud infection has not been observed in this region, possibly because conditions are unfavourable for insect vectors. No active banana bacterial wilt eradication programme is in operation and early removal of the male bud is not practiced.
Title:    Biology, geographical distribution, prevention and control of the enset root mealybug, Cataenococcus ensete (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Ethiopia.
Authors:    Addis, Temesgen; Azerefegne, Ferdu; Alemu, Tameru; Lemawork, Sisay; Tadesse, Eyob; Gemu, Mesele; Blomme, G;
Year:    2010
Journal:    Special td: Bananas, plantains and enset I.    39-46    4(1)
Abstract:
More than 15-million Ethiopians depend upon enset for their food, fibre, animal forage, construction materials and medicines. However, the sustainability of enset-based agriculture is threatened by a number of factors. The main biotic stresses are bacterial wilt, the enset root mealybug, nematodes, fungi and other vertebrate pests like mole-rats. Enset root mealybug, Cataenococcus ensete is a major pest of enset (Ensete ventricousm) in enset growing areas of southern Ethiopia. This paper reviews the recent body of work on integrated control measures for enset mealybug (Cataenococcus ensete). Its focus includes: biology and description of C. ensete; the pest's behaviour within the enset plant; its geographical distribution; pest symptoms; mealybug dispersal methods and key means of mealybug management including prevention and cultural, biological and chemical control (including plant-extracts). The enset mealybug is difficult to control with insecticides, due to its cryptic nature, waxy-coat and life-style of forming dense colonies of multiple and overlapping generations. Besides, insecticides often prove too costly. This review should allow researchers and extension agents to make more informed choices regarding a more effective, integrated approach to control enset root mealybug.
Title:    Nematodes associated with enset and banana in the highlands of Ethiopia.
Authors:    Addis, Temesgen; Blomme, G; Turyagyenda, L F; Berg, E van den; Waele, D de;
Year:    2006
Journal:    International Journal of Nematology    118-125    16(2)
Abstract:
In July-December 2004, a survey was conducted in 25 districts in the highlands of south-western and south-central Ethiopia to obtain a comprehensive picture of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with the most commonly grown enset clones and banana cultivars. In total 294 enset plants and 45 banana plants were examined for root damage and sampled for nematode extraction and identification. Twelve plant parasitic nematode taxa were identified in the enset roots. Pratylenchus goodeyi was the most common species and was present in about 9 out of 10 enset root samples. Ektaphelenchoides sp. occurred in almost 30% of the enset root samples while Meloidogyne spp. were present in about 10% of the enset root samples. Radopholus similis was not found in the enset roots. Eight plant parasitic nematode taxa were identified in the banana roots. Helicotylenchus multicinctus was the most common species and was present in about 2 out of 3 root samples. Pratylenchus goodeyi and Meloidogyne spp. occurred in 46.7 and 40% of the root samples, respectively, while R. similis and Ektaphelenchoides sp. were present in 20 and 13.3% of the root samples, respectively. The frequency of occurrence of the other nematode species in the enset and banana roots was low. All nematode taxa, except R. similis and Tylenchorhynchus leviterminalis, were found at 1,500-2,000 m above sea level. R. similis was only found below this altitude, T. leviterminalis above this altitude. The only other nematode species which occurred together with T. leviterminalis above 2,500 m was P. goodeyi. Percentage dead roots of the enset and banana roots examined averaged 5 and 9%, respectively, while percentage root necrosis of the enset and banana roots averaged 9 and 25%, respectively.
Title:    Livestock Feeds and Feeding System in Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) Dominated Mixed Farming System of Southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Afele, Samuel Menbere;
Year:    2014
Journal:    Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research    150-158    4(6)
Abstract:
This study was conducted to identify the livestock feeds resources, feeding systems, feed related problems and the determinant factors under smallholder farmers? livestock production system in the Sidama zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. A total of 135 sample household heads which represents about 10 percent of the household heads in the two study districts (Shebedino and Dale) were included in the study. According to the order of importance, natural grazing/scavenging, crop residue and purchased feeds from market/other farmers were the major (X2=1078.103, p<0.001, n=553) feed resources used to fed different livestock species/classes in the area. Due to the economic importance difference among species/classes, the provision priorities of each particular feed resource were also significantly different. Especially the provision disparity was more (X2=302.96, p<0.001) pronounced for crop residue for which male cattle (oxen and young bulls) get top priority than natural pasture (X2=157.48, p<0.001) on which other species/classes are highly dependent and purchased feed (X2=62.29, p<0.001) by which the scavenging poultry production is subsidized. In feed production, conservation and treatment aspects, growing of improved forages is not common practice in the area and majority about 57.0% (n=77) of farmers have not grown improved forages (X2=4.28, p<0.001), considerable 63.7% (n=86) and limited 25.9% (n=35) of farmers have also practiced feed conservation (mainly maize Stover and elephant grass) (X2=15.96, p<0.001) and crop residue treatment (mostly add and mix salt) (X2=33.34, p<0.001), respectively. Grazing land is a scares resource in the livestock production sub-system of the area and only about 34.1% (n=46) of the farmers in the study area posses private grazing land with an average holding of 0.073∓0.014 ha. Land shortage, feed shortage and population pressure were identified as major (X2=132.09, p<0.001) problems in related with feed availability in the area. The extent of land shortage (X2=10.595, p<0.01) and population pressure (X2=14.016, p<0.001) problems were different between farmers at the two study districts.
Title:    Optimizing soil fertility gradients in the Enset systems of the Ethiopian Highlands
Authors:    Amede, T; Diro, M;
Year:    2007
Journal:    Advances in Integrated Soil Fertility Management in sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and Opportunities    289-297    
Abstract:
Ensete ventricosum is a perennial, security crop that feeds about 13 million people in Ethiopia. It is grown in the homesteads, covering about 18% of the farm, in mixture with Coffee, kale, and other vegetables. The recent shift from enset to cereals and continual soil fertility decline in the outfields caused food deficit for at least 3 months in a td. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of soil fertility gradients on enset growth, identify the major growth limiting nutrients, and identify farmers? decision making criteria in allocating resources to various enterprises. The research was conducted on farmers fields of resource rich (G1) and poor (G3) for four years (2001-2004). Enset transplants were planted in homestead and outfields. Application of fertilizers by farmers to different units over seasons and years was tred. Enset growth and nutrient content was measured. The results showed that the G1 group produced about 2xs more organic waste than G3, and purchased chemical fertilizers 5xs more than the G3 farmers. About 80 % of the organic resource produced was allocated for maintaining soil fertility, while 20% being allocated as cooking fuel. Of this 65% is allocated for the enset field in the homestead. There was significantly higher N, P, K and Ca contents in the home stead soils than in the outfield, regardless of farmers? resource endowment. The P content of the outfield was the lowest, less than 25% of the P content of the homestead. Similarly organic matter in the outfield was only about 40% of the homestead. Enset plants grown in the outfields experienced about 90% height reduction and 50% reduction in pseudo stem diameter, regardless of resource categories, while the NPK content of the plant tissues grown in the outfield was significantly higher, in some case up to 150% than those planted in homestead. We thus concluded that growth reduction in the outfield was not directly related to NPK deficiency, but it could have been caused by off-season moisture stress in the outfields, manifested by low soil organic matter. The attempt to attract resources to the outfield using enset as an attractant crop failed, not because of labour shortage but because of unavailability of enough organic resources in the system. Hence on spot management of nutrients was initiated by farmers.
Title:    Fermentation of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) in the Gamo highlands of Ethiopia: Physicochemical and microbial community dynamics
Authors:    Andeta, A. F.; Vandeweyer, D.; Woldesenbet, F.; Eshetu, F.; Hailemicael, A.; Woldeyes, F.; Crauwels, S.; Lievens, B.; Ceusters, J.; Vancampenhout, K.; Van Campenhout, L.;
Year:    2018
Journal:    Food Microbiology    342-350    73
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) provides staple food for 15 million people in Ethiopia after fermentation into kocho. The fermentation process has hardly been investigated and is prone to optimization. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and microbial dynamics of fermentation practices in the Gamo highlands. These practices show local variation, but two steps were omnipresent: scraping of the pseudostem and fermenting it in a pit or a bamboo basket. Enset plants were fragmented and fermented for two months in order to investigate the physicochemical (temperature, moisture content, pH and titratable acidity) and microbial dynamics (total viable aerobic counts, counts of Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds and Clostridium spores counts, and Illumina Miseq sequencing). Samples were taken on days 1, 7, 15, 17, 31 and 60. The pH decreased, whereas the titratable acidity increased during fermentation. Of all counts those of lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium spores increased during fermentation. Leuconostoc mesenteroides initiated the fermentation. Later on, Prevotella paludivivens, Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium minimum dominated. These three species are potential candidates for the development of a starter culture.
Title:    Characterization of the Xanthomonas sp. causing wilt of enset and banana and its proposed reclassification as a strain of X. vasicola
Authors:    Aritua, V.; Parkinson, N.; Thwaites, R.; Heeney, J. V.; Jones, D. R.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Crozier, J.; Reeder, R.; Stead, D. E.; Smith, J.;
Year:    2008
Journal:    Plant Pathology    170-177    57(1)
Abstract:
Comparative analyses were undertaken to characterize Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, the causal agent of a wilt of enset and banana, and to assess its relatedness to other xanthomonads by fatty acid methyl esters, genomic fingerprinting using rep-PCR and partial nucleotide sequencing of the gyrase B gene. The results from all three analyses indicated that strains of X. campestris pv. musacearum are homogeneous and very similar to X. vasicola strains isolated from sugarcane and maize from Africa. Pathogenicity studies indicated that strains of X. vasicola pv. holcicola and X. vasicola from sugarcane induced no symptoms on banana, whereas X. campestris pv. musacearum produced severe disease. These data will support a future proposed reclassification of X. campestris pv. musacearum as X. vasicola pv. musacearum when more data are available.
Title:    Molecular epidemiology of xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, the causal agent of xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset
Authors:    Aritua, V.; Parkinson, N.; Thwaites, R.; Jones, D. R.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Smith, J. J.;
Year:    2009
Journal:    Acta Horticulturae    219-226    828
Abstract:
Xanthomonas wilt of enset and banana was first described in Ethiopia in 1968 and is now a serious disease that is spreading in East and Central Africa. Earlier studies identified Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum as the causal agent. This paper describes the characterisation of strains ...
Title:    Weight gain and carcass characteristics of Adilo sheep fed urea treated wheat straw supplemented with Enset (Ensete ventricosum ), atella and their mixtures.
Authors:    Assefa, Feleke; Urge, Mengistu; Animut, Getachew;
Year:    2015
Journal:    Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare    187-194    5(11 PG - 187-194)
Abstract:
The experiment was carried using twenty-five male intact yearling Adilo sheep with average body weight of 16.5∓3.5 kg to determine the effects of Enset ventricosum, atella and their mixture supplements to urea treated wheat straw (UTWS) on body weight gain (ADG) and carcass parameters. The experiment consisted of ninety days of feeding followed by carcass evaluation. The experimental design was randomized complete block design, and animals were blocked based on their initial body weights. Treatments were UTWS fed ad libitum alone (T1) or with 300 g/d atella (T2), 200 atella+100 g/d enset (T3), 200 enset +100 g/d atella, (T4) and 300 enset (T5). Results of laboratory analyses for CP (6.4, 18.2 and 7.6%) and NDF contents (72, 51 and 62%) were for UTWS, atella and enset respectively. The result revealed that sheep fed on supplemented feed achieved greater (P<0.05) ADG (-8.9, 47.8, 34.4, 30 and 24.4 (∓3.35) g for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively). The value of ADG was greater for T2 among supplemented groups. Hot carcass weight was 5.4, 8.2, 7.2, 6.7 and 6.6 (∓0.25) kg for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively and followed similar trend like that of ADG. Results of this study highlighted that supplementation of urea treated wheat straw with enset and atella to have a positive effect on, ADG and carcass parameters. However, the effect is more pronounced for atella than enset or the two mixtures possibly due to the higher CP content of atella.
Title:    Extension of Enset Plant Product for Rural Development in Ethiopia
Authors:    Ayele, Asres; Sahu, Omprakash;
Year:    2014
Journal:    Journal of Agricultural Economics    31-40    2(3)
Abstract:
For years kocho and bulla has been produced traditionally from Enset plant. More than 20 percent population of the country, concentrated in the highlands of southern and south eastern Ethiopia, depend upon enset for human food, fiber, animal forage, construction materials, medicines, means of earning cash income and insurance against hunger. Kocho and bulla processing equipment design is very crucial to upgrade the traditional processing towards modern style where might turn the value added kocho and bulla based product for export market. The whole plant design focused on transforming the traditional, which is unhygienic and tiresome, too efficient and quality guaranteed industrial level. Using Enset plant as raw material kocho and bulla flour is produced for large scale industry which is easy to handle and use.
Title:    Physiological characteristics and pathogenicity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum strains collected from enset and banana in Southwest Ethiopia
Authors:    Befekadu, Haile; Girma, Adugna; Fikre, Handoro;
Year:    2014
Journal:    African Journal of Biotechnology    2425-2434    13(24)
Abstract:
Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) is a deadly bacterial pathogen causing wilt of enset and banana plants since the first tr in Keffa province in Southwest Ethiopia as early s the 1960s. The disease remains a dominant constraint to enset production although its impact on banana has declined over the past four decades. The disease is ravaging banana plantations and spreading at alarming rates since its recent outbreak in other east and central African countries, including Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania and Kenya. Enset wilt management strategies such as sanitation have been recommended although it is tedious for farmers to apply them for various reasons. The efforts to develop enset clones tolerant/resistant to Xcm strains have not been efficient for inconsistent reactions/performance of the selected materials, mainly attributed to variations in the bacterial isolates used across the studies. Thus, it is important to determine ranges of variation within the pathogen and host populations for developing resistant varieties and further breeding work. The objectives of this study were to collect and characterize Xcm strains from enset and banana plants in three major enset growing zones of Southwest Ethiopia and determine host-pathogen interactions. Nineteen (19) Xcm strains were selected from a total of 72 isolates collected from leaf petioles of enset and banana plants infected with bacterial wilt in six districts of Sheka, Keffa and Bench-Maji zones. The bacterial strains were typically creamy to yellow mucoid, circular with dome-shaped colonies. The strains were Gram-negative, KOH and catalase positive, suppressed on asparagine medium and negative for nitrate reduction; most isolate (84.2%) were insensitive to 2% NaCl while few strains (15.8%) were retarded by 1% NaCl concentration. All the strains were positive to hypersensitivity test with reaction varying from chlorosis to necrosis on tobacco leaves. Six enset and two banana strains of Xcm were pathogenic to the susceptible enset 'Yeko' and banana 'Butuza' (AAA) clones. The banana strains induced typical bacterial wilting symptoms on both hosts that ultimately led to complete death (100%). The host-pathogen interaction evidenced differences mostly among the enset clones in their resistance/tolerance and variation in aggressiveness (virulence) between the bacterial strains. The enset clones 'Nobo' and 'Gudiro' were consistently resistant while 'Yeko' was highly susceptible to the three Xcm strains, namely: Xcme-9, Xcme-10 and Xcme-19, whereas 'Chikaro' was moderately tolerant to two strains (Xcme-10 and Xcme-19) but most susceptible to strain Xcm9. The strains were less or non-aggressive to the resistant clones 'Nobo' and 'Gudiro' but most aggressive on the susceptible plants while ranges of aggressiveness were demonstrated on 'Chikaro'.
Title:    Cross-linking enset starch microspheres, physicochemical characterization and study on their drug loading and release properties
Authors:    Belachew, G.; Gebre-Mariam, T.;
Year:    2009
Journal:    Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal    27    2
Abstract:
Enset starch was cross-linked in solid phase systems using sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) as crosslinking agent under different microwave powers and reaction times to investigate its drug-release-sustaining ability. Paracetamol was used as a model drug. The swelling and water-binding capacities and the peak viscosity of the cross-linked enset starch varied with cross-linking parameters. The degree of cross-linking (DC) also varied with reaction time. The drug loading ratio (D) and encapsulation efficiency (E) of the crosslinked starch increased significantly compared to the native starch. Loading time markedly affected the two parameters. Increasing loading time from 45 to 150 min boosted the D and E, respectively, from 4.7 to 10.4% and 9.4 to 20.7%. Drug concentration in the loading medium affected both parameters but in the opposite way. Native enset starch matrices loaded with the model drug released 96.4% of their content within 1.5 h while the cross-linked ones released only 39.5%. After 24 h, cross-linked enset starch matrices released 95.6% of the drug implying their ability to sustain drug release, and hence their potential use as drug-release-sustaining pharmaceutical excipient.
Title:    Distinction between wild and cultivated enset (Ensete ventricosum ) gene pools in Ethiopia using RAPD markers
Authors:    Birmeta, Genet; Nybom, Hilde; Bekele, Endashaw;
Year:    2004
Journal:    Hereditas    139-148    140(2)
Abstract:
In southwest Ethiopia, the cultivation area of Ensete ventricosum (enset) overlaps with the natural distribution area of this species. Analyses of genetic diversity were undertaken using RAPD to provide information for conservation strategies as well as evidence of possible gene flow between the different gene pools, which can be of interest for future improvement of cultivated enset. The extent of RAPD variation in wild enset was investigated in 5 populations in the Bonga area (Kefficho administrative region) and 9 cultivated clones. Comparisons were also made with some Musa samples of potential relevance for crop improvement. Nine oligonucleotide primers amplified 72 polymorphic loci. Population differentiation was estimated with the Shannon index (G'(ST)=0.10), Nei's G(ST) (0.12) and AMOVA (Phi(ST)=0.12), and appears to be relatively low when compared with outbreeding, perennial species in general. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) and principal component analysis (PCA) similarly indicated low population differentiation, and also demonstrated that cultivated clones essentially clustered distinctly from wild enset samples, suggesting that the present-day cultivated enset clones have been introduced to domestication from a limited number of wild progenitors. In addition, subsequent gene flow between wild and cultivated enset may have been prohibited by differences between modes of propagation and harvesting time; cultivated enset is propagated vegetatively through sucker production and the plant is generally harvested before maturity or flower set, thereby hindering pollination by wild enset or vice versa. A significant correlation was not found between genetic and geographical distances. The relatively high total RAPD diversity suggests that wild enset populations in the Bonga area harbour genetic variability which could potentially act as a source for useful or rare genes in the improvement of cultivated enset. As expected, E. ventricosum was clearly differentiated from the analysed Musa samples, that clustered in accordance with the present morphology- and molecular marker-based taxonomy of the genus.
Title:    Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset: Current state of knowledge and integrated approaches toward sustainable management
Authors:    Blomme, G.; Dita, M.; Jacobsen, K.S.; Vicente, L.P.; Molina, A.; Ocimati, W.; Poussier, S.; Prior, P.;
Year:    2017
Journal:    Frontiers in Plant Science    8    
Abstract:
Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense). However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1) Ralstoniaassociated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis); (2) Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3) Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi), bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca). Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed). This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.
Title:    Current geographical distribution of two native african biotic constraints to musa production: Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, and some nematode species
Authors:    Blomme, G.; Price, N.; Coyne, D.; Lepoint, P. C.E.; Nicolas, N.; Ndayihazamaso, P.; Niyongere, C.; Yemataw, Z.; Addis, T.; Pillay, M.; Karamura, E. B.; Jones, D.;
Year:    2013
Journal:    Acta Horticulturae    89-102    986
Abstract:
Banana planting materials, healthy and diseased, are constantly moved between farms, villages, and ecological zones, and across political borders within Africa. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of pests and diseases is important for the implementation and strengthening of quarantine and other phytosanitary measures to prevent further within-country or trans-border spread. This review examines some of these issues. Within sub-Saharan Africa, key indigenous plant-parasitic nematodes attacking banana and plantain are Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Hoplolaimus pararobustus, and various species of Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) and Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes). Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset (caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum), an indigenous African disease, originated in Ethiopia and since 2001, has steadily spread across East and Central Africa but has so far not been found outside the African continent.
Title:    Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management.
Authors:    Blomme, Guy; Dita, Miguel; Jacobsen, Kim Sarah; Perez Vicente, Luis; Molina, Agustin; Ocimati, Walter; Poussier, Stephane; Prior, Philippe;
Year:    2017
Journal:    Frontiers in plant science    1290    8
Abstract:
Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense). However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1) Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis); (2) Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3) Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi), bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca). Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed). This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.
Title:    Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management
Authors:    Blomme, Guy; Dita, Miguel; Jacobsen, Kim Sarah; Prez Vicente, Luis; Molina, Agustin; Ocimati, Walter; Poussier, Stephane; Prior, Philippe;
Year:    2017
Journal:    Frontiers in Plant Science    8    
Abstract:
Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense). However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: 1) Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis); 2) Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3) Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi), bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca). Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: Javanese vascular wilt, bacterial wilt of abaca and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed). This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.
Title:    Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset: current state of knowledge and integrated approaches towards sustainable management
Authors:    Blomme, Guy; Dita, Miguel; Jacobsen, Kimsarah; Prez-Vicente, Luis; Molina, Agustin; Ocimati, Walter; Poussier, Stephane; Prior, Philippe;
Year:    2017
Journal:    Frontiers in Plant Science    1290    8(July)
Abstract:
Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis) and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense). However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: 1) Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis); 2) Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3) Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi), bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca). Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: Javanese vascular wilt, bacterial wilt of abaca and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed). This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.
Title:    Nutritional and chemical properties of fermented food of wild and cultivated genotypes of enset (Ensete ventricosum )
Authors:    Bosha, Abraham; Dalbato, Abitew Lagibo; Tana, Tamado; Mohammed, Wassu; Tesfaye, Buzayew; Karlsson, Laila M.;
Year:    2016
Journal:    Food Research International    806-811    89
Abstract:
The multipurpose crop enset (Ensete ventricosum ) has been traditionally cultivated in Ethiopia since ancient times. The main food product is the starch-rich fermented kocho made from the pseudostem and corm. There are many vegetatively propagated landraces utilised by farmers, but no concisions breeding have taken place, and there are requests for improved cultivars. There are also populations of wild ensets which propagate sexually, and the variation in characteristics among the wild is not studied. We suggest investigating the variation among the wild, in order utilise the most proper combinations of parent plants when breeding for different purposes. We analysed kocho, after 30 and 90 days of fermentation, from three wild genotypes and three cultivars, to compare how and how much they differ in components and perceived food quality. The three cultivars scored generally higher than all the three wild genotypes for protein, fat, sugar and minerals, while the wild had larger fraction of starch. On average, panellists rated all the cultivated significantly higher than all the wild regarding the investigated characteristics (colour, texture, taste and overall). However, there were nine out of 25 panellists who rated at least one wild genotype higher or equal to at least one cultivar regarding taste, showing that people can be open for unfamiliar kocho. Therefore, we conclude that further investigations of the variation among wild plants should be done, aiming to get a larger gene pool with improved characteristics as e.g. disease tolerance or superior mineral uptake; by careful selection of parent plants, desired combinations can be achieved.
Title:    The "Tree Against Hunger": Enset-based Agricultural System in Ethiopia
Authors:    Brandt, S.a.; Spring, Anita; Hiebsch, Clifton; McCabe, J.T.; Tabogie, Endale; Wolde-Michael, Gizachew; Yntiso, Gebre; Shigeta, Masayoshi; Tesfaye, Shiferaw;
Year:    1997
Journal:    Advancement Of Science    56    
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) is the main crop of a sustainable indigenous African system that ensures food security in a country that is food deficient. Enset is related to and resembles the banana plant and is produced primarily for the large quantity of carbohydrate-rich food found in a false stem (pseudostem) and an underground bulb (corm). More than 20 percent of Ethiopia's population (more than 10 million people -- the precise number of enset users is unknown), concentrated in the highlands of southern Ethiopia (Figure 1.1), depend upon enset for human food, fiber, animal forage, construction materials, and medicines. The complete document is also available as a pdf-download.
Title:    Community Indigenous Knowledge On Traditional Fermented Enset Product Preparation And Utilization Practice In Gedeo Zone
Authors:    Brihanu, Zerihun Tsegaye; Gizaw, Brihanu;
Year:    2015
Journal:    Journal of Biodiversity and Ecological Sciences    2008-9287    5(3)
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum welw Chessman) is a crop of major economic and socio-cultural importance for a wide range of smallholder households in Ethiopia. Enset supports more than 20 -25% of Ethiopia's population as staple and co-staple food, and also used as a traditional medicine. Processing of Enset for food is based on traditional indigenous knowledge of the people and varies among different Enset growing areas. The objective of this study was to assess and document indigenous knowledge of traditional fermented enset products preparation and utilization techniques in Gedeo zone. Data was collected using structured, semi-structured questionnaire, personal interview, direct observation, focus group discussion and key informant interview. Then a structured and semi-structured questionnaire was designed to collect information across 23 group informants (132 listed elder informants) who involved in the study from six districts. The major enset processing steps, including, selection of mature enset plants, preparation of surface fermentation, pulverization and decortications, bulla extraction, the traditional tools used and starter culture (Gamama) preparation were described. Among the respondents, 49.24% of those in the study area were male and 50.56 % female and almost all study participants were evolved from Gedeo ethnic groups that involved in enset plant cultivation and traditional Kocho preparation. Enset clones which were dominant and recognized by many farmers in Gedeo zone were Nifo, Toracho, Denbele, Shagne, Dinke, Ado and Harame respectively used 100%, 36.6%, 35.6%, 34.09%, 26.51%, 17.42% and 7.57% utilized by farmers mainly due to its fast fermentation process and quality of kocho. 100% of the study participants were used enset clones such as Kake, Qarassie and Astara for its medicinal importance, for its fast fermentation purposes and also for its kocho quality. 100% study participants were used Genticho variety for its kocho yield, drought and diseases resistance. However every parts of enset were exhaustively used by farmers for different purpose. Understanding these different community traditional kocho and bulla preparation and utilization practices are very important. In addition to understanding these practices, it is very important to document this traditional community indigenous knowledge.
Title:    Evaluation of enset clones against enset bacterial wilt
Authors:    Crop, African; Society, Science; Bobosha, K; Blomme, G; Addis, T; Mengesha, T; Mekonnen, S; Ababa, Addis; International, Bioversity; WELDE-MICHAEL, G; Bobosha, K; Blomme, G; Addis, T; Mengesha, T; Mekonnen, S;
Year:    2008
Journal:    African Crop Science Journal    89-95    16(1)
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) is an important food crop for over 20% of the Ethiopian population living in the southern and southwestern parts of the country. Enset farmers commonly grow combinations of clones in fields, but each clone is grown for its specific use. A large number of enset clones collected from the Sidama, Gurage, Kembata Tembaro and Hadyia zones were assessed for resistance/tolerance to enset bacterial wilt, Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) at the Awassa Agricultural Research Center, Awassa in Ethiopia, during the period 1994 to 2000. In addition, some enset clones that were reported by farmers and researchers as tolerant to Xcm were evaluated during the same period. The objective of the study was to screen field-grown enset clones collected from different zones of southern Ethiopia, for reaction against the wilt. All Xcm inoculated enset clones in each of the experiments developed disease symptoms to various intensity levels during the first 45 days after inoculation. However, several enset clones showed relative tolerance to the disease. The enset clones ?Astara?, ?Buffare?, ?Geziwet 2?, ?Gulumo? and ?Kullo? showed 100% disease symptoms at 30 days after inoculation and could, hence, be used as susceptible checks in future screening trials. Disease symptoms were observed on ?Mezya?, ?Hiniba?, ?Sorpie? and ?Sigezasarum?, between 21 and 75 days after inoculation. However, some plants resumed normal growth at 90 days after inoculation. The enset clones that showed a resistant and/or tolerant reaction to the wilt pathogen should be further evaluated against a large number of Xcm isolates under greenhouse and field conditions.
Title:    Vermicomposting as a sustainable practice to manage coffee husk, enset waste(enset ventricosum), khat waste (Catha edulis) and vegetable waste amended with cow dung using an epigeic earthworm eisenia andrei (Bouch' 1972)
Authors:    Degefe, Gezahegn; Mengistu, Seyoum; Dominguez, Jorge;
Year:    2012
Journal:    International Journal of PharmTech Research    15-24    4(1)
Abstract:
This 90 days vermicomposting work was conducted to evaluate the performance of epigeic earthworms E.andrei to alter and change four commonly dumped and littered solid wastes in Ethiopian cities and towns in to a high quality vermicompost. All wastes were mixed with cow dung in 3:1 ratio and treated with earthworm E.andrei in the following waste and worm mass proportion. 9kg of vegetable waste treated with 130gm of worms, 9kg of enset waste treated with 130gm of worms, 5kg of coffee husk treated with 70gm of worms, 8kg of khat waste treated with 115gm of worms. Results from all beddings treated by this species of earthworms showed that TKN increased b/n 50.3 - 56%, TK increased between 29.6 - 43.6 %, TP increased between 58.9% - 73.2%, Ca increased between 39.6 % - 61.5%, while TOC decreased between 35% - 38.4 % and the C:N ratio reduced between 60 - 68 %. The findings from this experiment generally indicated that vermicomposting could be one good option to improve solid waste management performance of Ethiopian cities and towns through the production of excellent biofertilizer for agronomic purpose.
Title:    Feed scarcity and livestock mortality in enset farming systems in the Bale highlands of southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Desta, Zerihun H.; Oba, G.;
Year:    2004
Journal:    Outlook on Agriculture    277-280    33(4)
Abstract:
Livestock feed scarcity is often the major cause of livestock mortality during drought in the enset (Ensete ventricosum )-livestock mixed farming systems in the Kokosa district of the Bale highlands in south-eastern Ethiopia. Livestock mortality associated with feed scarcity was investigated in the livestock-enset, enset-livestock and enset-livestock-cereals production systems of the Ararso, Jafaro and Bokore subdistricts of Kokosa respectively, using farmers' perceptions during a drought td in 1998, an average rainfall td in 1999 and a wet td in 2000. Livestock mortality was variable between years and between farming systems. Greater livestock mortality occurred during the drought than in an average or wet td. Generally, mortality was greater in the livestock-enset and least in the enset-cereals-livestock production system. Among livestock, cattle experienced greater mortality than small ruminants and equines, and the greatest mortality was amongst the mature cows, followed by calves (<2 years old) and least among yearlings (2-4 years old) and oxen. Livestock mortality was associated with shortages of feed - often related to shrinkage of communal grazing lands and inadequate supplementary feeding. Feed supplementation by farmers, when used, improved livestock survival. The capacity to provide feed supplementation depended on herd size as well as the size of the semi-private range enclosures (kalo), while supplementation with enset by-products was less effective. Purchase of feed from other farmers and cereal crop residues were important means of rescue. In the future, extension services should promote improved feed management through feed conservation and greater integration of livestock and cropping systems.
Title:    Growth of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) suckers under different horticultural practices
Authors:    Diro, M.; Gebremariam, S.; Zelleke, A.; Van Staden, J.;
Year:    2002
Journal:    South African Journal of Botany    430-433    68(4)
Abstract:
The influence of three propagation practices and three corm types of enset on the production of suckers was investigated. After removal of apical buds, mother corms were uprooted and immediately replanted, not uprooted from original positions and uprooted and transferred to new planting holes three months later. Three corm types: whole, halved and quartered corms were used. Suckers were harvested one td after removal of apical buds. After harvest, the suckers were sorted into three size groups: undersized, small and medium to large. The number of suckers produced per plot, from four planting holes, ranged from 40 to 141 depending on the treatments. Halved and quartered mother corms, when transferred to new planting holes three months after removal of apical buds, produced fewer suckers. On the other hand, the halved corms, when uprooted and replanted immediately after removal of apical buds or not uprooted from their original growing sites, gave earlier differentiation of buds and produced more suckers. The halved corms also gave more medium to large suckers than whole and quartered corms when evaluated across all the propagation methods. An increase in the number of vigorous suckers from halved corms is possible because of elimination of the strong apical dominance while leaving reasonable portions of the mother corm to sustain initiation, growth and development of suckers. Therefore, halved corms uprooted and immediately replanted or left in situ can be used to produce more suckers with better growth.
Title:    Effect of tree-enset-coffee based agro-forestry practices on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species diversity and spore density
Authors:    Dobo, Beyene; Asefa, Fassil; Asfaw, Zebene;
Year:    2018
Journal:    Agroforestry Systems    525-540    92(2)
Abstract:
A study on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) spore abundance and species composition was undertaken along different tree-enset-coffee based agroforestry practices in Sidama administrative region of Southern Ethiopia. Soil samples were collected from 36 sampling points for each tree-enset-coffee combinations within the nine sampling sites. The soil samples were processed for soil physicochemical properties; AMF spore abundance, AMF species composition and soil trap cultures. In tree-enset-coffee based agro-forestry practices there was significant (P < 0.05) effects on AMF spore abundance among different combinations. However, land uses with Millettia ferruginea and Erythrina brucei had higher spore numbers than land use types with Cordia africana as a shade tree. AMF species also seemed to show preference for specific tree-crop combination. Percentage root colonization of five months old Sorghum bicolor grown as a trap plant in field soils collected along the tree-crop combinations from the experimental sites showed significantly different (P < 0.05) root colonization. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.458, P = 0.016) between root colonization and spore abundance at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). A total of 28 AMF morphotypes from eight genera were isolated. Species diversity also responded differently to different tree-crop combinations, in tree-enset-coffee based agroforestry practices for all experimental sites. The response of AMF species to different tree-crop combinations therefore indicates the importance of selection of specific species of trees for better management of small holder at low external input agroforestry practices.
Title:    Demonstration of Effective Management Option for Mole Rat of Enset in Kafa Zone
Authors:    Earecho, Minyahil Kebede;
Year:    2015
Journal:    Journal of Poverty Journal    17    
Abstract:
Enset (Enset ventricosum) cultivation has existed for several hundred years as a sustainable form of agriculture in Ethiopia. However, the sustainability of Enset based agriculture is threatened by a number of factors. The main biotic stresses are bacterial wilt, the Enset root mealy bug and mole rats. Mole rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) were reported as being as destructive of Enset as bacterial wilt. Mole rats can be controlled by using trap, chemicals and smokers. There are some botanicals plants that can repel the mole rats. In order to minimize mole rats attack, farmers of the study area were tried many option like directing flood and/or pouring water in to the mole tunnels, locally made traps and excavating the mole tunnels. But, they were not satisfied because of their less effectiveness and also need more human labor and time. Besides this ? due to extreme mole rats attack on Enset farms at the study area ? the farmers also lost their endeavors to control moles and they were obligated to replace their Enset farms by annual crops. Taking these in to account, the crop protection team of BoARC was demonstrated the fumigant aluminum phosphide to control mole rats on Enset farms in Kafa zone of Adiyo district at Boka and Alarigeta villages. The demonstration was conducted on a plot size of 10m x 10m at Enset farms of five farmers per village. The demonstration manifested that, the fumigant aluminum phosphide was a significant impact on mole rats mobility through the plots and the number of attacked Enset. Likewise, farmers of the study area were preferred aluminum phosphide rather than the practices they were familiar with in the past to control mole rats. In conclusion, aluminum phosphide was recommended for scaling up to minimize the damage of mole rats to Enset crops in highly mole rat prone areas. 1. Background and Justification Enset, Enset ventricosum cultivation has existed for several hundred years as a sustainable form of agriculture in Ethiopia [2]. More than 20% of Ethiopia's population depends upon Enest for food, fibre, animale forage, construction materials and medicines. However, the sustainability of Enset based agriculture is threatened by a number of factors. The main biotic stresses are bacterial wilt, the Enset root mealybug, nematodes, fungi and other vertebrate pests like mole-rats [1]. Mole rats are solitary animals that develop their own extensive tunnel system [4]. Individuals live alone and develop tunnels for feeding, for nesting and rearing offspring, for food storage and for sanitary disposal. Discharged mounded soil and heaved runways are indicators of this pest's presence [3]. The staff of the Hawassa Plant Health Clinic recently mapped one tunnel system which consisted of 29 branches with a total length of 140 meters and covering 50 square meters. After a period of tunnel use, especially the sanitary tunnel, an area may be walled off and not used again. Mole rats were reported as being as destructive of Enset as bacterial wilt. Mole rats usually prefer and consume grass roots in open pastures with well drained soils but often thrive on weedy plant roots near fence rows and property boundaries, especially during the dry season [4]. With land pressures reducing the pasture areas, extensive feeding by mole rats on root crops and Enset has become prevalent. Some farmers have experienced the heartbreak of seeing their entire plantation succumb one by one to mole rats. Plants often become yellow at the top, drying and dying from the extensive root cutting and subsequent water shortage. Feeding on 1-3 td old Enset plants often results in complete loss of the root system and plants can be lifted out of the ground. Older and larger plants are often girdled and can remain alive but growth is retarded. Sometimes the "corm" (inside of the Enset plant) is tunneled in to the shoot meristem where the terminal leaf is cut off from its nutrient/water source. Mole rats can be controlled by using trap, chemicals and smokers. There are some botanicals plants that can repel the mole rats. For example Tephrosia vuglia, if planted around the farm it repels the mole rats. Farmers in southern Ethiopia have different traditional methods to control mole rats. The farmers of Bonke district follow the biology of the mole rats to trap mole rat, where as farmers in Wolayta zone were used different way to trap the mole rat. Moreover, farmers of the study area (Adiyo district; Boka and Alarigeta Villages) were tried to control mole rats by directing flood and pouring water in to the mole tunnels, by locally made traps and by excavating the run ways or tunnels. However, the above mentioned options already practiced by the farmers were limited to control moles in the study area; due to high infestation of moles. Besides, consumed more time and human power /labor/. Indeed, due to extreme mole rat attack on Enset farms the farmers were lost their endeavors to control moles and they were obligated to replace their Enset farms by annual crops. As a result, Enset becomes out of
Title:    Weight and chemical composition of the plant parts of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) and the intake and degradability of enset by cattle
Authors:    Fekadu, D; Ledin, I;
Year:    1997
Journal:    Livestock Production Science    249-257    49(3)
Abstract:
Three varieties of enset (Ensete ventricosum ), Agade, Badedat and Lemat, were collected in the Guraghe zone in Ethiopia. The plant parts (the leaf lamina, leaf midribs, pseudostem sheath, pseudostem core and corm) were separated, weighed and analysed. The dried samples were analysed for dry matter (DM), total ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and lignin. There was no significant difference between varieties in the proportion of the DM weight of the plant parts to the total DM weight of each respective variety nor was there any difference between varieties in their chemical components except in the lignin of the pseudostem sheath where Badedat variety had a lower content of lignin, and the DM and CP of the corm where Lemat variety had lower values than the two other varieties. The average values in percent of DM for the chemical composition of leaf and pseudostem respectively were 12.6 and 7.2 (CP), 62.7 and 23.7 (NDF), 40.9 and 9.8 (ADF), 6.7 and 1.8 (lignin) and 12.6 and 7.8 (ash). The DM content was 11.7% in the leaves and 15.8% in the pseudostem. The voluntary intake of enset leaf and pseudostem with or without urea supplementation was determined using eight non-lactating Ethiopian zebu cows with an average live weight of 197.5 kg (S.D. = 12.42) in the experiment. Urea supplementation had a significant effect on DM intake of pseudostem of enset (22.0 vs. 25.6 g/kg body weight/day for unsupplemented and urea supplemented respectively) but had no significant effect on the DM intake of the leaf (24.3 vs 24.8 g/kg body weight/day for unsupplemented and urea-supplemented respectively). The rumen degradability of the plant parts (the leaf lamina, leaf midribs, pseudostem sheath, pseudostem core and corm) of three varieties of enset was studied using three fistulated steers of Ethiopian zebu breed and incubation periods of 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The degradability of enset lamina at 48 h was better than that of straw and banana leaf and similar to that of stover and Chloris gayana hay. The other parts of the enset plant had even higher degradability than green C. gayana, setaria grass, elephant grass and guatemala grass.
Title:    Characterizing farming practices from three regions of Ethiopia on which enset (Ensete ventricosum ) is widely profited as a multipurpose crop plant
Authors:    Fekadu, Dereje;
Year:    2009
Journal:    Livestock Research for Rural Development    21    12
Abstract:
In enset growing area the average land holding ranges from 0.6-2.9 ha. In these places, livestock get most of their feed from grazing where the remainder is the enset leaf and crop-residue. Enset leaf is fed in the period from December to May, dry period of a td. This time of the td is when limitation of feed in quality and quantity prevailed. Leaf samples from 118 enset varieties of three zones of the enset growing region were collected for a chemical test together with gathering primary information on the present feeding system. The mean value for Ash, CP, NDF, ADF, Lignin, ADFAsh, P, Ca and Mg was 17.8, 14.6, 69.6, 42.1, 8.54, 2.83, 0.22, 1.07 and 0.31 respectively. During dry season of a td, farmers practice to supplement their livestock after grazing with crop residues and hay which result sub-optimal level of nutrient intake. Considering the chemical composition of enset and its mineral content, enset leaf can be used as a supplemental feed resource to back up the short fall.
Title:    Growth performance of Adilo sheep fed urea treated wheat straw supplemented with enset(Enseteventricosum), atella and their mixtures
Authors:    Feleke, Assefa; Mengistu, Urge; Getachew, Animut;
Year:    2015
Journal:    African Journal of Agricultural Research    2444-2452    10(24)
Abstract:
The experiment was carried using twenty-five male intact yearling Adilo sheep with average body weight of 16.5∓3.5 kg to determine the effects of Enset ventricosum, atella and their mixture supplements to urea treated wheat straw (UTWS) on feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain (ADG). The experiment consisted of ninety days of feeding trial and seven days of digestibility testing. The experimental design was randomized complete block design, and animals were blocked based on their initial body weights. Treatments were UTWS fed ad libitum alone (T1) or with 300 g/d atella (T2), 200 atella+100 g/d enset (T3), 200 enset +100 g/d atella, (T4) and 300 enset (T5). Results of laboratory analyses for CP (6.4, 18.2 and 7.6%) and NDF contents (72, 51 and 62%) were for UTWS, atella and enset respectively. The result revealed that UTWS intake ((333, 356, 353, 349 and 340 (∓0.6) g/d), total DM intake (333, 626, 618, 609 and 595 (∓0.6) g/d), total CP intake (22, 72, 59, 53 and 42 (∓0.1) g/d) for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) were greater for those supplemented than non-supplemented sheep and increased (P<0.05) with increasing level of atella in the supplement. The digestibility of DM and CP also lower (P<0.05) for T1 compared with the other treatments, and CP digestibility for T2 was greater than other supplemented groups. Sheep fed on supplemented feed achieved greater (P<0.05) ADG (-8.9, 47.8, 34.4, 30 and 24.4 (∓3.35) g for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively). The value of ADG was greater for T2 among supplemented groups. Results of this study highlighted that supplementation of UTWS with enset and atella to have a positive effect on feed intake, digestibility and ADG. However, the effect is more profound for atella than supplementation with enset or the two mixtures (T3:14% and T4:11.7%) possibly due to the higher CP content of atella.
Title:    The anatomy of ovule ontogeny of banana, plantain and enset (Musaceae)
Authors:    Fortescue, J. A.; Turner, D. W.;
Year:    2005
Journal:    Scientia Horticulturae    479-492    104(4)
Abstract:
Ovules of the seeded diploid Musa acuminata (AA) and seedless edible triploids (AAA) from the same cytogenetic group, plus edible triploids of the Musa balbisiana cytogenetic group (AAB and ABB), were studied to determine their development before and past anthesis. Of particular interest was the development of the embryo sac and whether the growth of reproductive tissues in the parthenocarpic fruit (edible triploids) differed from the fertile seeded fruit (diploids). Ovules were collected from 18 cultivars and species growing in subtropical northern New South Wales and the Mediterranean climate of Perth, Western Australia. Ovules were examined histologically using the light microscope. The development of the triploid ovules was similar to the diploid ovules. The anatomical development of ovules of seeded diploid, edible triploids, tetraploids and the related genus Ensete sp. under went similar, if not identical, patterns of ontogeny. The most distinctive difference in ovule ontogeny between members of musaceae is ovule size, ensete ovules were significantly larger than other members of the family. Parthenocarpic edible triploids and tetraploids, of A and B genome and sub species of M. acuminata (Musa a. ssp.) had anatomically mature ovules that contained embryo sacs at anthesis. Some of these embryo sacs had one or more nuclei. Some had eight nuclei, even in the highly sterile Cavendish subgroup. Thus, ovule fertility should be investigated as part of an integrated reproductive system. ? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Title:    The occurrence of a micropylar exudate in Musa and Enset (Musaceae)
Authors:    Fortescue, J. A.; Turner, D. W.;
Year:    2005
Journal:    Scientia Horticulturae    445-461    104(4)
Abstract:
Wild bananas are diploid while most cultivated varieties are triploid. Triploidy leads to sterility that has a number of causes, but in Musa a micropylar exudate is not listed amongst them. We examined ovules of seeded diploid Musa acuminata (AA) and edible triploids (AAA) from the same cytogenetic groups (AAB, ABB) and the related genus Ensete sp. to determine whether there was any association between the presence of a micropylar exudate and sterility. Pre-anthetic, anthetic and post-anthetic specimens were embedded in methacrylate, sectioned and examined under the bright-field microscope. The micropyles of seeded diploid and seedless edible triploid cultivars of M. acuminata. contained an exudate. In contrast to the locular fluid, the exudate persisted after fixation, thus it was a viscous mucilaginous material. It was strongly PAS-positive and counter stained purple with Toluidine blue; it contained insoluble polysaccharides and proteins and appeared to arise from the nucellar cap. The exudate was not observed in ovules of pre-anthetic M. acuminata or post-anthetic Ensete, both of which are diploid. However, the exudate in post-anthetic fertilised and unfertilised diploid M. acuminata ovules was dissimilar. In the fertilised ovules the exudate was redder and less purple, indicating it contained more polysaccharides and less protein. Both pre-anthetic and post-anthetic ovules of the edible cultivars (A and B genome) exhibited a micropylar exudate. Early in ovule ontogeny the exudate was variable in presence. There appeared to be a determinate age when the triploid ovule begins to produce an exudate, between archesporia and megaspore. The production of an exudate may depend on the presence of a functioning megagametophyte or embryo sac. Embryo sac competency could be the cue to turn off pollen tube inhibition. The exudate may be linked to an ovarian self-incompatibility system. ? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Title:    Growth and development of ovules of banana, plantain and enset (Musaceae)
Authors:    Fortescue, J. A.; Turner, D. W.;
Year:    2005
Journal:    Scientia Horticulturae    463-478    104(4)
Abstract:
Sterility has profound effects on the development of reproductive tissues in members of the Musaceae and limits genetic improvement required to deal with new diseases. Ovules of seeded diploid Musa acuminata (AA) and edible triploids (AAA) from the same cytogenetic group, plus edible triploids containing genomes of the M. balbisiana cytogenetic group (AAB, ABB) and the related genus Ensete sp. were studied to determine the effects of sterility on the growth and development of the ovule and its tissues. Specimens were collected from subtropical and Mediterranean environments in Australia. At anthesis, the ovules of triploid plants were 36% larger than the ovules of diploid plants. The diploid ovules ceased growth shortly after the inflorescence emerged from the pseudostem. In contrast, the triploid ovules continued to grow 7-10 days past anthesis, increasing in size by 70%. All ovules of diploid M. acuminata ssp. had an embryo sac at anthesis, against 97% for triploids. At anthesis the embryo sacs in diploid ovules occupied 2.7% of the nucellus compared with 1.5% in triploid ovules. The embryo sacs did not grow between bunch emergence and anthesis, once formed they maintained the same size. Many embryo sacs were not positioned correctly, flush with the nucellar cap. The diploid M. acuminata ssp. had 75% of embryo sacs correctly positioned against 10% in the edible triploids. The proportion of balbisiana genome (B) did not affect ovule or nucellus size or shape, or cell number across the nucellus. It increased the embryo sac presence 96-100% of ovules. The sterile edible triploid bananas have embryo sacs at anthesis but many are incorrectly positioned, which may contribute to their sterility. The balbisiana genome in the edible triploids was associated with a 2.4-fold increase in the number of correctly positioned embryo sacs and this may contribute to the increased fertility associated with the B genome. ? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Title:    Isolation and physico-chemical properties of enset starch
Authors:    Gebre-Mariam, T.; Schmidt, P. C.;
Year:    1996
Journal:    Starch/Staerke    208-214    48(6)
Abstract:
Enset starch (Ensete ventricosum , Musaceae) has been examined for its chemical composition, amylose content and physico-chemical properties. The proximate composition of the starch on dry weight basis was found to be 0.16% ash, 0.25% fat, 0.35% protein, and 99.24% starch. The amylose content was 29%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of enset starch granules showed characteristic morphology that was somewhat angular and elliptical. The starch has normal granule size distribution with a mean particle size of 46?m. It exhibits typical X-ray diffraction pattern of B-type with a distinctive maximum peak at around 17 2? Its moisture sorption pattern was similar to that of potato starch but much higher than maize starch. DSC parameters obtained from starch-water mixtures (1:2), namely, the enthalpy of gelatinization (?H: 21.6mJmg?1), the onset temperature (T0: 61.8C), the peak temperature (Tp: 65.2C) and the endset temperature (Te: 71.7C) were higher than those obtained for potato starch. Brabender viscosity curves of 6% starch paste showed lower peak viscosity (884 BU) than potato starch (1668 BU) but greater than maize starch (302 BU). The breakdown was also lower than potato starch but higher than maize starch. Retrogradation of enset starch was substantially greater than potato starch but less than maize starch. Isolierung und physikalisch-chemische Eigenschaften von Ensete-Strke. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die chemische Zusammensetzung und die physikalisch-chemischen Eigenschaften der Strke von Ensete ventricosum , Musaceae, beschrieben. Bezogen auf das Trockengewicht betrgt der Strkegehalt 99,24%, daneben besteht Ensete-Strke aus 0,16% Asche, 0,25% Fett und 0,35% Protein. Der Amylosegehalt wird mit 29% angegeben. Rasterelektronenmikroskopische Aufnahmen (REM) zeigen eine charakteristische, winklige und elliptische Gestalt der Strkekrner. Die mittlere Partikelgre wird mittels Laserbeugung bestimmt und betrgt 46?m, das Teilchengrenspektrum folgt annhernd einer Normalverteilung. Die Rntgendiffraktometrie ergibt ein typisches Muster vom ?B-Typ?? mit einem charakteristischen Maximum bei ungefhr 17 2?. Das Sorptionsverhalten hnelt dem der Kartoffelstrke, whrend der Quellungsdruck und die Lslichkeit niedrigere Werte als bei Kartoffelstrke, aber deutlich hhere als bei Maisstrke aufweisen. Die Differentialthermoanalyse einer Mischung aus 1 Teil Ensete-Strke und 2 Teilen Wasser ergibt eine hhere Verkleisterungstemperatur als fr Kartoffelstrke. Die Verkleisterungsenthalpie ?H betrgt 21,6mg ? mg?1, die onset-Temperatur To liegt bei 61,8C, die Peaktemperatur Tp bei 65,2C und die endset-Temperatur Te bei 71,7C. Die Brabender Viskosittskurve eines 6%igen wrigen Endsete-Strkekleisters weist ein geringeres Viskosittsmaximum (884 BU) auf als Kartoffelstrke (1668 BU), liegt aber ber der Maisstrke (302 BU). Der Viskosittszusammenbruch ist geringer als bei Kartoffelstrke, jedoch hher als bei Maisstrke. Die Retrogradation von Ensete-Strke ist deutlich grer als die der Kartoffelstrke aber kleiner als bei Maisstrke.
Title:    Characterization of enset starch and its use as a binder and disintegrant for tablets
Authors:    Gebre-Mariam, T.; Schmidt, P. C.;
Year:    1996
Journal:    Pharmazie    303-311    51(5)
Abstract:
To characterize the physico chemical properties of enset starch, tablets containing either lactose monohydrate, acetaminophen (paracetamol), or calcium phosphate dibasic dihydrate (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate) and either enset starch or potato starch underwent crushing strength, friability, and disintegration testing. Enset starch demonstrated better binding ability than potato starch, giving tablets of lower porosity. Its disintegrating efficiency depended on the formulations and was comparable to that of potato starch. (41 refs.) (td by Elizabeth G. Rudnic.)
Title:    An evaluation of the disintegration efficiency of a sodium starch glycolate prepared from enset starch in compressed tablets
Authors:    Gebre-Mariam, T.; Winnemoller, M; Schmidt, P.C;
Year:    1996
Journal:    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics    124-132    42(2)
Abstract:
The disintegration efficiency of a sodium starch glycolate prepared from enset starch (SSG-E) was evaluated in -lactose monohydrate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate tablets by comparing similar tablets containing sodium starch glycolate from potato starch (Primojel?) or croscarmellose sodium, NF (Ac-Di-Sol?). For -lacotse monohydrate tablets, where the disintegration mechanism mainly depended on the rates of swelling and water uptake, SSG-E was found to be more efficient than Primojel? or Ac-Di-Sol?. Tablets prepared with SSG-E exhibited shorter disintegration times, faster rates of swelling and water uptake. In dicalcium phosphate tablets, however, significant differences were not found in the efficiency of the sodium starch glycolates. Where passive mechanisms are also involved in tablet disintegration process, as in -lactose monohydrate tablets, SSG-E and Primojel? were more efficient than Ac-Di-Sol?. Where active mechanisms prevail over passive mechanisms, as in dicalcium phosphate dihydrate tablets, the sodium starch glycolates were found to be less efficient than Ac-Di-sol?. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate tablets prepared with Ac-Di-sol? showed faster disintegration times, rates of swelling and water uptake. Physico-chemical studies on SSG-E and Primojel? revealed similarity in particle size and viscosity, but differences in shape, sedimentation td and water soluble fractions and these may partly account for the differences in their disintegration efficiency.
Title:    A comparative study of the use of enset and potato starches in tablet formulations
Authors:    Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Armstrong, N. Anthony;
Year:    1995
Journal:    Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy    1211-1221    21(10)
Abstract:
To compare the use of enset and potato starches as binding agents and disintegrants in tablets, the properties of chloroquine phosphate and acetaminophen (paracetamol) tablets prepared with enset or potato starch were evaluated. The results showed that enset starch could be used both as a binding agent and disintegrant. It had a better binding ability than potato starch, giving tablets of lower porosity. However, because of this, tablets containing enset starch disintegrated more slowly. (9 refs.) (td by M. Therese Gyi.)
Title:    Comparison of Enset Starch with Other Widely Known Commercial Starches and Its Significant Applications in Pharmaceuticals
Authors:    Getachew, Anteneh; Desta, Wubalem; Bekele, Abreham;
Year:    2016
Journal:    British Biotechnology Journal    43108    14(4)
Abstract:
Enset [Enset ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman], a plant widely cultivated in south and southwest of Ethiopia has been shown to be a rich source of starch. A review regarding comparison of enset starch with other widely known commercial starches and its significant applications in pharmaceuticals was presented. After a brief historical introduction, details of the use of enset crop in Ethiopia were noticed. Many experimental studies suggested that, enset starch has potentials in pharmaceutical industries as tablet excipients as binder and disintegrant, sustained release agent, pharmaceutical gelling agent and other excipients. The review further compare the potentials of enset starch with commercially available other starch in terms of ease of availability, physical and chemical properties and efficiencies.
Title:    A Look into Genetic Diversity of Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) Using Transferable Microsatellite Sequences of Banana in Ethiopia
Authors:    Getachew, Selamawit; Mekbib, Firew; Admassu, Belayneh; Kelemu, Segenet; Kidane, Sisay; Negisho, Kefyalew; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Nzuki, Inosters;
Year:    2014
Journal:    Journal of Crop Improvement    159-183    28(2)
Abstract:
Microsatellite sequences are one of the best options for the study of genetic diversity in plant species. However, because of the high cost of their development, it is important to test whether existing sequences from related species can be exploited. Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) has remained largely unimproved partly due to lack of its genetic information, thus there is a need to study the genetic diversity of current accessions and build on it to develop new cultivars/varieties with desired agronomic traits. Transferability of 71 SSR loci from banana (Musa accuminata) to enset was investigated using 220 Enset accessions. Among the 71 SSRs tested, 12 (16.9%) were successfully transferable to enset. Eleven (16.9%) of these were used to examine the diversity of the 220 enset accessions that had been collected from eight different zones in Ethiopia.
Title:    In vitro regeneration of disease free enset [ Ensete ventricosum ( Welw ) Cheesman ] planting materials from bacterial wilt diseased plants using shoot tip culture
Authors:    Gezahegn, Genene; Mekbib, Firew;
Year:    2016
Journal:    African Journal of Biotechnology    2192-2201    15(40)
Abstract:
Enset is an important food crop produced in Ethiopia with great role in food security. The demand of the crop is increasing throughout the country. However, the production as a whole is decreasing due to devastation by enset bacterial wilt. The studies were conducted to develop the procedure for obtaining multiple disease free plantlets from infected enset plants. Shoot tip explants from infected suckers of three clones Arkiya, Digomerza and Mazia were cultured on MS media supplemented with different combinations of benzylaminopurine (BAP) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) each with concentration of 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 mg/L with 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/L, respectively. The effect of growth regulators on shoot growth parameters was examined. The minimum days (11.66) for multiple shoot induction were tred for Mazia on media with 4.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 m/L NAA. The maximum number of shoots (23.0) was also obtained for Mazia on the same hormone combination as for days of induction. Whereas, the maximum shoot length (8.1 cm) was tred for Digomerza on media with 3 and 1 mg/L NAA. Similarly, for root induction and growth MS media with different concentrations of indulebutyric acid (IBA; 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/L) were evaluated. The minimum days (10.5) to root induction was observed for Mazia on media with 1.5 mg/L IBA and the maximum root number (3.8) was tred at 2 mg/L IBA. In the efficiency of shoot tip culture for Xanthomonas pathogen elimination, sample suspension was prepared from shoots regenerated from diseased suckers and transferred on semi- selective yeast peptone sucrose agar (YPSA) medium. The result of colony observation indicated that many microbes are living in enset saprophytically as mixed colony growth was observed within 24 h after sample culturing. Pathogenesity test on clean suckers of susceptible clone showed that the colonies grown were due to endophytic microbes since none of the colonies were capable to develop disease symptoms as sample of the pathogen strain.
Title:    Current availability of seed material of enset (Ensete ventricosum , Musaceae) and its Sub-Saharan wild relatives
Authors:    Guzzon, Filippo; Mller, Jonas V.;
Year:    2016
Journal:    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution    185-191    63(2)
Abstract:
Crop wild relatives are an important source of new genetic diversity for plant breeding and crop improvement. Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) is mainly cultivated as a multipurpose crop in Ethiopia, supplying food to 13 million people. To improve the agronomic traits of enset clonal lines, sexual propagation can be of key importance, in particular crossbreeding landraces with populations of undomesticated Ensete wild relatives. We investigated the availability of stored seed material of the enset genepool represented by three African Ensete species (E. homblei, E. livingstonianum, E. ventricosum) in gene bank facilities across the world, and also the possibility to obtain freshly collected, undried seed material for conservation and research purposes. We queried the main plant genetic resources databases and contacted 27 gene and seed banks, research centres and several individual researchers. Only one seed bank seemed to hold a seed accession of only one of the three species, E. ventricosum (Millennium Seed Bank of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew). Available seed accessions of the other two species (E. homblei, E. livingstonianum) do not seem to exist. The lack of stored seed material of the three Ensete species and the difficulties in obtaining fresh seeds make it impossible to use seeds for breeding and crop improvement. We consider the existing seed conservation measures of the enset crop and its wild relatives as insufficient. A collection, research and ex situ conservation programme targeting Sub-Saharan Ensete seeds is needed considering the potential value of these species for food security across Africa.
Title:    Mechanical behavior of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) pulp under compression loading - A multipurpose product in Ethiopia
Authors:    Herk, D.; Hrab?, P.; Kabutey, A.; Jaweso, D. E.; Diriba, H. D.;
Year:    2014
Journal:    Journal of Food Process Engineering    588-595    37(6)
Abstract:
The mechanical behavior of Enset pulp commonly known as "kocho" in Ethiopia was examined under compression loading test involving a compressive device and a pressing vessel. The pulp was pressed at initial pressing height 70 mm at deformation values ranging between 5 mm and 30 mm and pressing speed 10 mm/min. Applying the tangent curve equation, the mathematical description of the dependency between compressive force and appropriate deformation of Enset pulp was described. The maximal yield of liquid contained in the pulp and the liquid emerged during the pressing process were determined. The dependency between liquid emerged and deformation was mathematically described, which showed a linear function. It was further observed that the liquid contained in the pulp surfaced throughout the pressing process. Deformation energy, td energy and gradient td energy in relation to deformation were respectively calculated. It was seen that deformation of Enset pulp at 20 mm was energy efficient compared with deformations lower or greater than 20 mm. Practical Application The theoretical linear model determined in this present study for the description of mechanical behavior of Enset pulp under compression loading provides useful information for application in nonlinear pressing involving screw presses for the design and development of simple technology for optimization of energy requirement in Enset pulp processing and other important products. This new technology when developed would contribute substantially to the improvement of Ethiopian's and other African countries' food security.
Title:    EFFECT OF CULTIVAR, TRADITIONAL CORM PRE-TREATMENT AND WATERING ON SPROUTING AND EARLY GROWTH OF ENSET (Ensete ventricosum ) SUCKERS
Authors:    Karlsson, L. M.; Dalbato, A. L.; Tamado, T.; Mikias, Y.;
Year:    2015
Journal:    Experimental Agriculture    232-243    51(2)
Abstract:
Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman (Musaceae)] is a multi-purpose and drought-tolerant crop, traditionally grown in Ethiopia. Food from enset has nutritive values similar to potato; it could improve food and livelihood security for many in larger geographical areas. Agronomical advice is needed which requires increased knowledge of management techniques. The purposes of this study were to (i) compare traditional corm pre-treatments when planting for sucker production, (ii) compare all six officially released cultivars regarding sprouting and (iii) investigate the effect of watering on newly buried corms. Emergence rate and number and characteristics of sprouts were tred. Corms, from 63 two td old plants, were buried in local soil supplied with cow manure in Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. Emergence was tred daily. After nine months, including one rainy season, all suckers (totally 4405) were harvested and individually tred. Regardless of cultivar, minimum time to emergence was 50 days. Sprouts from split parent corms emerged earlier than from entire. Emergence occurred from 100% of corms, number of sprouts was strongly correlated to cultivar: average 28-106. The cultivars responded similarly to corm splitting: the more pieces the corm was split into, the more sprouts per parent corm. Average pseudostem diameter of the seven largest per parent corm: 8-10 cm for all cultivars, leaf length: 3.1-3.7 m, remaining 2700 smaller suckers: diameter 3 cm (SD 1.8). Watering decreased the average time to emergence and levelled out the differences between pre-treatments. The traditional belief is that watering as well as manure on corm cause rotting; manure is therefore usually put on the soil surface. On the contrary, full emergence and unexpected large suckers may be a result of careful soil preparation with manure applied on corm directly; watering resulted in an even emergence and growth. In conclusion, vegetative propagation of enset is efficient, but methods used and agronomical advice can be improved.
Title:    The microbiology of Kocho: An Ethiopian Traditionally Fermented Food from Enset (Ensete ventricosum )
Authors:    Karssa, Tiruha Habte; Ali, Kebede Abegaz; Gobena, Edessa Negera;
Year:    2014
Journal:    International Journal of Life Sciences    8    1
Abstract:
Kocho is starchy food product obtained from a mixture of the scraped pulp of pseudo stem and pulverized corm of enset plant (Ensete ventricosum ). Ensete ventricosum is a drought resistant plant and can be cultivated as an alternative food source for food security problem around the globe. This study was conducted to examine the fermentation process, the microbial dynamics and the physicochemical changes that occur during traditional fermentation of kocho. Survey on kocho fermentation was carried out at three localities in the vicinity of Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia. Matured enset plants were purchased and processed and fermented following the traditional methods practiced by the Sidama (local people living in and around Hawasa City) women. Kocho samples were taken for microbiological and physicochemical analysis. The fermentation process was conducted in two Phases: Phase I (surface fermentation or without burring) and Phase II (pit fermentation or buried in pit) under five treatment conditions (kocho dough with traditional starter culture in bucket at surface or not buried in the pit, Kocho dough without traditional starter in bucket at surface or not buried, kocho dough with traditional starter culture in bucket buried in the pit, kocho dough without traditional starter culture in bucket buried in the pit and traditional kocho fermentation in pit). At Phase I, Aerobic mesophilic counts (AMC) were varied between 3.8 and 7.8 log CFU/g in all treatments. Correspondingly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were varied between 2.3 to 9.5 and 2.1 to 8.3 log CFU/g respectively. The pH value ranged from 6.12 to 4.50. At Phase II, AMC showed decreasing trend and enterobacteriaceae were totally inhibited towards the end as pH value lowered. Inconsistent variation was observed on LAB and yeast counts. Results suggested that LAB and yeasts were identified as the major microorganisms responsible for the fermentation of kocho. The isolates need further investigation to identify to species and/or strain level and use in starter culture development.
Title:    Indigenous Management of Enset Root Mealybug (Cataenococcus Ensete) Williams and Matile -Ferrero (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Gedeo Zone, Ethiopia
Authors:    Kefelegn, Habtamu; Tilahun, Beniam; Girma, Fekede;
Year:    2014
Journal:    International Journal of Life Sciences Beniam et.al. International Journal of Life Sciences    131-136    3(4)
Abstract:
This research was initiated with the objective of assessing indigenous knowledge of Enset root mealybug (Cataenococcus Ensete Williams and Matile-Ferrero) management and to document information which can be used in developing integrated management strategy against Enset root mealybug with the ultimate goal of helping in constructing the scientific basis for the conservation and sustainable use of the plant in Gedeo Zone; Ethiopia. Three districts representing major Agro-Ecological Zones namely Dilla Zuria, Gedeb and Wonago and two sub districts from each district were selected for the survey in 2012/13. A total of 180 farmers were interviewed. Three focus group discussions and filed observations were undergone in 90 Enset farms. The result shows that 26% of sampled farms were infested with Enset root mealy bug and Enset root mealy bugs count per plant tred in Dilla Zuria, Gedeb and Wonago District were 64, 51 and 76 respectively. Based on farmers' response and field observation; plants of 2-4 years of age were frequently found to be infested with the insect. Damage was very high during dry and hot period of the td and majority of farmers said that symptoms of Enset root mealybug attack cannot easily be known and before severe plant damage. Farmers usually prefer preventive measures. clean seedling selection, hygiene, fallowing, use of farmyard manure, increasing soil moisture, uprooting the infested plants and burning the hole, removing alternate hosts, control of ant and variety selection were major indigenous pest management techniques employed by the farmers. Farmers have been using indigenous methods of pest management for centuries and societies tested this immense experience several times. Closer examination of indigenous pest management by scientists can give valuable information on how to develop control strategies which are suitable for small scale farmers and therefore, huge consideration must be given during the development of sustainable pest management strategies.
Title:    Evaluation of entomopathogenic fungi against Cataenococcus ensete [Williams and Matile-Ferrero, (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)] on enset
Authors:    Lemawork, Sisay; Azerefegne, Ferdu; Alemu, Tameru; Addis, Temesgen; Blomme, Guy;
Year:    2011
Journal:    Crop Protection    401-404    30(4)
Abstract:
Enset root mealybug, Cataenococcus ensete Williams and Matile-Ferrero, (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is an economically important pest on enset. Adults and nymphs of overlapping generations feed on the corms and roots of enset and are difficult to control once established. Isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnickoff) Sorokin that originated from Ethiopia were evaluated for their efficacies against enset root mealybugs under laboratory, pots and field conditions. Of the tested isolates, two strains (FF and PPRC-56) of B. bassiana were found to be highly pathogenic to adults, causing 97 and 100% mortality, respectively 20 days after inoculation under laboratory conditions. On the other hand, the isolates PPRC-56, FF, PPRC-6 and Mm induced mean mortalities of 97, 95, 96 and 83%, respectively, to the adult enset root mealybugs on the pot experiment, and 51.33, 38.67, 29.33 and 19.33% mortality at the first site and 54.00, 42.67, 32.00 and 25.33% at the second site, respectively, in field experiments. The study showed B. bassiana and M. anisopliae can be used in the integrated management of enset root mealybug. ? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Title:    Calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper, compositions of human milk from populations with cereal and 'enset' based diets.
Authors:    Maru, M; Birhanu, T; Tessema, D A;
Year:    2013
Journal:    Ethiopian journal of health sciences    90-97    23(2)
Abstract:
As breast milk is normally the only source of food in the early stages of life, the dietary levels of the essential elements in the milk of lactating mothers are significantly important. Ethiopia is a country of many nations and nationalities with distinct dietary habits. This variation in food habit may result in the variation of the nutritional quality of milk of lactating mothers who live in different part of the country, which in turn may affect the intake of nutrients by breast-fed infants. Therefore, a cross-sectional study of the levels of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu in milk of mothers from societies with cereal and 'enset' based dietary habits was carried out to assess the influence of maternal diet on the levels of the elements in human milk. Milk samples were collected from 27 voluntary mothers in Jimma and in 18 rural areas of Welkite. Breast milk samples were collected within four days postpartum and the concentrations of the elements were determined by using FAAS. Average concentrations (mg/L) of the elements determined in the milk of mothers from Jimma and rural Welkite respectively were: Ca (758 ∓ 107, 579 ∓ 168); Mg (22.6 ∓ 7.87, 30.5 ∓ 13.4); Fe (0.50 ∓ 0.08, 0.41 ∓ 0.17); Zn (2.3 ∓ 1.2, 2.49 ∓ 0.88) and Cu (0.28 ∓ 0.14, 0.16 ∓ 0.08). Milk samples from Jimma were found to have significantly higher levels of Ca and Cu than those of rural Welkite (P < 0.05). Breast milk Ca and Cu levels were thus found to be influenced by dietary intake.
Title:    Allometric equations for yield predictions of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) and khat (Catha edulis) grown in home gardens of southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Mellisse, B. T.; Descheemaeker, K.; Mourik, M. J.; van de Ven, G. W.J.;
Year:    2017
Journal:    Annals of Applied Biology    95-102    171(1)
Abstract:
Enset is a large, single-stemmed perennial herbaceous plant domesticated as a staple food crop only in Ethiopia. Khat is a perennial plant cultivated for its economically important leaves and twigs that are the sources of stimulant when chewed. We address the td of yield estimation of both crops, as they are important for the livelihoods of smallholders in the home garden systems in Southern Ethiopia and have received little attention so far. The objective of this study was to develop linear allometric models for estimating the edible (food and feed) and commercial yields of enset and khat plants, respectively. Data were collected from 20 enset and 100 khat plants. Diameter at 50-cm height (d 50 ), pseudostem height (h p ) and their combination were good predictor variables for the food products of enset with adjusted R 2 values above 0.85, while d 50 , h p, edible pseudostem height (h ep ), total height (h t ) and their combination were good predictor variables for the feed products of enset with adjusted R 2 values above 0.70. For dwarf khat plants crown area (ca) combined with total height (h t ) resulted in the best prediction with an adjusted R 2 of 0.77, while the leaf and twig dry weight for tall khat plants was best predicted by ca with adjusted R 2 of 0.43. In all cases linear models were used.
Title:    Role and Problems of Coffee and Enset Dominant Home gardens for Enhanced Livelihood and Food Security in Dilla District , Southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Mengistu, Melese; Fitamo, Daniel;
Year:    2015
Journal:    East African Journal of Sciences    131-140    9
Abstract:
Home gardens are one of the most complex and diverse agroforestry systems in Gedeo, southern Ethiopia and it has played an important role in the improvement of livelihood and food security of households. The study was conducted with the objective of investigating the role and problems of Coffee (Coffea arabica L) and Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) dominated home gardens for improved livelihoods and food security in the study area. A purposive random sampling method was used to obtain a study population of 120 households. Primary data were collected through structured and semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and direct observations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics by generating frequency distribution and percentages. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between household age, educational level, household family size, home garden, and food security indicators. The results revealed that out of a total 75 different plant species, 40% were food crops, 17.3% were cash crops, 13.3% were medicinal plants, 17.3% were plants used as live fence, 20% were plants used for construction and fuel, 10.6% were used for home made furniture and utensils, 4% were used as spices crops, 5.3% were stimulants, 10.6% were used as ornamentals and 20% were used as shade trees. It was found that about 36.2% of the household income was contributed by home gardening in the surveyed area. The Pearson correlation coefficient results have showed that home gardening was positively and significantly correlated with household food security with respect to the number of meals eaten per day (0.281 at P < 0.01), home garden crops owned (0.716 at P < 0.01) and heads of livestock owned (0.223 at P < 0.05). However, no significantly positive correlation was observed between home gardening and household educational level. From the result, it was concluded that majority of plant in home gardens were food crops and contributing for food security. Households, therefore, should be aware and encouraged to use technologies to improve their practice of home gardening to realize food security. [td FROM AUTHOR]
Title:    Nutritive values of the drought tolerant food and fodder crop enset
Authors:    Mohammed, B; Martin, Gabel; Laila, M Karlsson;
Year:    2013
Journal:    African Journal of Agricultural Research    2326-2333    8(20)
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) is a drought tolerant crop, traditionally grown in Ethiopia. It has many usages: food, fodder, fibres and traditional medicine. Being perennial, enset improves local climate and soil conditions. It could contribute to improved food security in several drought-prone parts of the world. The aims of this study were to reveal the amino acids of enset corm, which can be cooked as a root crop, and to increase the general knowledge regarding chemical composition and energy values of different enset fractions. Water content was high, 85 to 90%, which is beneficial when used as fodder during dry periods. Enset corm contained 17 of 20 amino acids and had similar or higher concentration than potato of 12 of these. Leaves had 13% protein, among the highest available in Ethiopia, 20% crude fibre and 10% sugar; a good fodder and suitable for ensilage. The pseudostem, the main food source, was rich in soluble carbohydrates (80%) and starch (65%), but had low protein content (4%). An enset based diet should be supplemented with protein and complementary amino acids; for example from beans, which are suitable to intercrop with enset.
Title:    Woody species diversity under natural forest patches and adjacent enset-coffee based Agroforestry in the Midland of Sidama Zone, Ethiopia
Authors:    Molla, Abiot; Asfaw, Zebene;
Year:    2014
Journal:    International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation    708-723    6(10)
Abstract:
Agroforestry lands will be the most beneficial to the long-term preservation of biodiversity through preserving native species of plants and animals in tropical countries. Despites its vital roles, the contributions of agroforests and forest patches for biodiversity conservation in Ethiopia have few studded. The aim of this study was to investigate status of woody species diversity in natural forest patches and adjacent Enset-Coffee based agroforestry (ECAF) with particular emphasis on their contributions to biodiversity conservation in midland of Sidama zone, Ethiopia. The two study sites (Wonsho and Shebedino districts) were selected purposively based on presence of forest patches and extensive practices of ECAF. Similarly, the three kebele in each sites were selected based on the presence of natural forest patches. A total of 96 quadrats (48 in each systems), having 20 m x 20 m area were systematically sampled. Our results show that a total of 75 different woody species categorized under 31 families were tred, of which 43 species under 30 families from the natural forest patches and the remaining 32 species under 21 families from ECAF. Twenty two woody species belonging to 15 families were common to both the natural forest patches and ECAF that makes 58.67% of similarity in woody species composition. Euphorbiaceae family had the highest number of woody species both in the natural forest patches and ECAF. Shannon and Simpson diversity indices of woody species from natural forest patches were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the ones from ECAF. Of all woody species identified, 86.67% were native. Finally, it is concluded that ECAF play a major role in the conservation of native woody species.
Title:    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum : a major constraint to banana, plantain and enset production in Central and East Africa over the past decade
Authors:    Nakato, Valentine; Mahuku, George; Coutinho, Teresa;
Year:    2017
Journal:    Molecular Plant Pathology        
Abstract:
Taxonomy: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; currently classified as X. campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm). However, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, genetic and genomic evidence suggest that this pathogen is X. vasicola and resides in a separate pathovar. Isolation and detection: Xcm can be isolated on Yeast Peptone Glucose Agar (YPGA), Cellobiose Cephalexin Agar and Yeast Tryptone Sucrose Agar (YTSA) complemented with 5-flouro-uracil, cephalexin and cycloheximide to confer semi-selectivity. Xcm can also be identified using DAC-ELISA, species-specific PCR using GspDm primers and lateral flow devices that detect latent infections. Host range: Causes Xanthomonas wilt on plants belonging to the Musaceae primarily banana (Musa acuminata), plantain (M. acuminata x balbisiana) and enset (Ensete ventricosum ). Diversity: There is a high level of genetic homogeneity within Xcm although genome sequencing has revealed two major sublineages. SYMPTOMS Yellowing and wilting of leaves, premature fruit ripening and dry rot, bacterial exudate from cut stems. Distribution: Xcm has only been found in African countries, viz. Burundi, Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Ecology and epidemiology: Xcm is transmitted by insects, bats, birds and farming implements. Long distance dispersal of the pathogen is by the transportation of latently infected plants into new areas. MANAGEMENT Management of Xcm has relied on cultural practices that keep the pathogen population at tolerable levels. Biotechnology programmes have been successful in producing resistant banana plants. However, deployment of such genetic material has not as yet been achieved in farmer fields, and the sustainability of transgenic resistance remains to be addressed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Title:    Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum: A major constraint to banana, plantain and enset production in central and east Africa over the past decade
Authors:    Nakato, Valentine; Mahuku, George; Coutinho, Teresa;
Year:    2017
Journal:    Molecular Plant Pathology    43112    2001
Abstract:
Taxonomy: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; currently classified as X. campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm). However, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, genetic and genomic evidence suggest that this pathogen is X. vasicola and resides in a separate pathovar. Isolation and detection: Xcm can be isolated on Yeast Peptone Glucose Agar (YPGA), Cellobiose Cephalexin Agar and Yeast Tryptone Sucrose Agar (YTSA) complemented with 5-flouro-uracil, cephalexin and cycloheximide to confer semi-selectivity. Xcm can also be identified using DAC-ELISA, species-specific PCR using GspDm primers and lateral flow devices that detect latent infections. Host range: Causes Xanthomonas wilt on plants belonging to the Musaceae primarily banana (Musa acuminata), plantain (M. acuminata x balbisiana) and enset (Ensete ventricosum ). Diversity: There is a high level of genetic homogeneity within Xcm although genome sequencing has revealed two major sublineages. SYMPTOMS: Yellowing and wilting of leaves, premature fruit ripening and dry rot, bacterial exudate from cut stems. Distribution: Xcm has only been found in African countries, viz. Burundi, Ethiopia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Ecology and epidemiology: Xcm is transmitted by insects, bats, birds and farming implements. Long distance dispersal of the pathogen is by the transportation of latently infected plants into new areas. MANAGEMENT: Management of Xcm has relied on cultural practices that keep the pathogen population at tolerable levels. Biotechnology programmes have been successful in producing resistant banana plants. However, deployment of such genetic material has not as yet been achieved in farmer fields, and the sustainability of transgenic resistance remains to be addressed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Title:    In vitro conservation of enset under slow-growth conditions
Authors:    Negash, Almaz; Krens, Frans; Schaart, Jan; Visser, Bert;
Year:    2001
Journal:    Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture    107-111    66(2)
Abstract:
Studies on in vitro storage of enset under slow-growth conditions were carried out to develop an efficient protocol for conservation of the genetic diversity of the crop. The response to different growth retardation treatments was examined using three enset clones collected from southwestern Ethiopia. In vitro cultures could be effectively maintained for 6 months at 15 ?C and 18 ?C on MS medium supplemented with 10 M BAP, in the presence of mannitol at concentrations of 0, 1 or 2%as a growth retardant. Shoots were subsequently recovered and multiplied on MS medium supplementedwith 10 and 20 MBAP at 25 ?C and rooted shoots were successfully transferred to the greenhouse. Incubation at the lower temperature (15 ?C) and the presence of mannitol in the culture medium had a significantly positive effect on maintenance, measured by the number of recovered shoots after storage.
Title:    In vitro conservation of enset under slow- growth conditions
Authors:    Negash, Almaz; Krens, Frans; Schaart, Jan; Visser, Bert;
Year:    2001
Journal:    Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture    107-111    66
Abstract:
Studies on in vitro storage of enset under slow-growth conditions were carried out to develop an efficient protocol for conservation of the genetic diversity of the crop. The response to different growth retardation treatments was examined using three enset clones collected from southwestern Ethiopia. In vitro cultures could be effectively maintained for 6 months at 15 ?C and 18 ?C on MS medium supplemented with 10 M BAP, in the presence of mannitol at concentrations of 0, 1 or 2%as a growth retardant. Shoots were subsequently recovered and multiplied on MS medium supplementedwith 10 and 20 MBAP at 25 ?C and rooted shoots were successfully transferred to the greenhouse. Incubation at the lower temperature (15 ?C) and the presence of mannitol in the culture medium had a significantly positive effect on maintenance, measured by the number of recovered shoots after storage. Abbreviations:
Title:    The significance of enset culture and biodiversity for rural household food and livelihood security in southwestern Ethiopia
Authors:    Negash, Almaz; Niehof, Anke;
Year:    2004
Journal:    Agriculture and Human Values    61-71    21(1)
Abstract:
The significance of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) for the food and livelihood security of rural households in Southwestern Ethiopia, where this crop is the main staple, raises two major questions. The first concerns the related issues of household food security and livelihood security and the contribution of the enset farming and food system in achieving these. The second deals with the td of biodiversity in enset cultivation. What role does biodiversity play in food and livelihood security and how is it perceived and measured? To answer the latter question, it is necessary to look at the td of classification of enset varieties, comparing indigenous and scientific classifications. In answering the questions, an interdisciplinary approach is used, and both etic and emic perspectives are applied. A gender perspective is applied as well because of the gendered division of labor in enset cultivation and the gendered nature of indigenous knowledge. The analysis draws mainly on the findings of a recent study on enset cultivation in Ethiopia [Negash (2001) PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands]. The findings show that enset farming guarantees household food security to a large extent, but that household livelihood security depends on the cultivation of additional crops and household ownership of livestock and other assets. It was also found that maximizing diversity in enset is of importance to farmers, and that the farmers' classification of enset varieties yields a finer grid than the classification of enset clones on the basis of molecular analysis.
Title:    In vitro regeneration and micro-propagation of enset from Southwestern Ethiopia
Authors:    Negash, Almaz; Puite, Klaas; Schaart, Jan; Visser, Bert; Krens, Frans;
Year:    2000
Journal:    Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture    153-158    62(2)
Abstract:
Three clones of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) from southwestern Ethiopia (Keffa-Shaka zone) were investigated for their potential for micropropagation and regeneration in tissue culture. Corm and leaf tissue of greenhouse-grown plants as well as in vitro germinated zygotic embryos were used as starting material for micro-propagation and regeneration studies. Embryos were excised from disinfected seeds and cultured in vitro. Multiple shoots from both corm- and embryo-explants were obtained using regeneration medium supplemented with 10 ?M or 20 ?M BAP. Rooting of shoots was achieved using medium with 5 ?M IBA, 1 ?M BAP and 1 g l?1 activated charcoal. Plantlets obtained by this process were transferred to soil under greenhouse conditions. Optimal conditions, which were determined for clonal propagation of three different genotypes of enset, allowing both in vitro micropropagation and regeneration, are described. This protocol makes for conservation of enset clones, rapid propagation of selected disease-free germplasm and more efficient breeding procedures.
Title:    Allometric equations for biomass estimation of Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) grown in indigenous agroforestry systems in the Rift Valley escarpment of southern-eastern Ethiopia
Authors:    Negash, Mesele; Starr, Mike; Kanninen, Markku;
Year:    2013
Journal:    Agroforestry Systems    571-581    87(3)
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum ), commonly known as false banana, is a large thick, single-stemmed, perennial herbaceous banana-like plant growing in the wild of sub-Sahara Africa, Madagascar and parts of Asia. In Ethiopia it has been domesticated and serves as a food plant. While the productivity and management of enset for food (pseudostem and corm) has been studied, little attention has been given to total biomass production and associated carbon sequestration. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate allometric models for estimating above and belowground biomass and organic matter contents of enset grown in indigenous agroforestry systems in Rift Valley escarpment of south-eastern Ethiopia. Biomass harvesting of 40 plants was carried out at altitudes from 1900 to 2400 m. a. s. l. The mean plant dry weight was 9. 4 ∓ 0. 84 kg and organic matter content 94 %. Pseudostem biomass accounted for highest (64 %) of total biomass, followed by corm (24 %) and foliage (12 %). Basal diameter (d10) was the best predictor variable for total and all biomass components (Spearman r = 0. 775-0. 980, p < 0. 01). The power model using d10 and height (H) (Y = 0. 0007d10 2. 571H0. 101; R2 = 0. 91) was found to be the best performing model (highest ranking over six good-of-fit statistics) for predicting total biomass. Model performance decreased in the order pseudostem > corm > foliage biomass. The models presented can be used to accurately predict biomass and organic matter of enset in the agroforestry systems of Rift Valley escarpments Ethiopia. ? 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Title:    AFLP analysis of enset clonal diversity in south and southwestern Ethiopia for conservation
Authors:    Negasha, Almaz; Tsegayeb, Admasu; Van Treuren, Rob; Visserc, Bert;
Year:    2002
Journal:    Crop Science    1105-1111    42(4)
Abstract:
Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is a major multipurpose crop in Ethiopia, which has been identified as the center of origin and diversity of enset. During the last decades, the local farming systems in which enset is maintained have become endangered. Conservation of clonally propagated crops like enset is complex and relatively expensive. Consequently, an assessment of clonal diversity is essential in order to maximize conservation efforts. In the present study, 146 clones from five different regions in southern and southwestern Ethiopia were characterized with amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to investigate genetic relationships among clones, identify duplicates, and study regional variation. A total of 180 bands were scored, of which 104 (58%) appeared polymorphic. Twenty-one duplication groups consisting of 58 clones were identified. Duplicates were related to different utilization purposes of clones and to the changing of vernacular names after exchange of clones between communities. Despite large variation in agroecological conditions among regions, only 4.8% of the total genetic variation was found between regions, whereas 95.2% was found within regions. This finding may be explained by regular long distance exchange of clones. Furthermore, it suggests the existence of substantial levels of phenotypic plasticity in enset. The results of the study allow for a substantial and well based reduction of the number of clones qualifying for conservation. In addition, the exchange between regions suggested by this study indicates that unexplored additional diversity, if existing, should mainly occur in divergent farming systems.
Title:    Digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep fed enset (Ensete ventricosum ) pseudostem or corm and graded levels of Desmodium intortum hay to wheat straw-based diets
Authors:    Nurfeta, A.;
Year:    2010
Journal:    Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition    773-779    94(6)
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay supplementation in sheep fed fixed amounts of enset pseudostem or corm and a basal diet of wheat straw on intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization. Eighteen male sheep with a mean (∓ SD) live weight of 20.5 ∓ 1.45 kg were assigned to six treatments in a completely randomized design and fed either 108 g dry matter (DM) enset pseudostem or 165 g DM enset corm each with three levels (100, 200 and 300 g) of hay supplementation. For the pseudostem diets, there was no significant difference in total DM intake. Total crude protein (CP) intake and N retention increased with increasing levels of hay in both pseudostem and corm diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and microbial nitrogen supply (MN) at 100 g was lower that other levels of supplementation. For the corm diets, total DM and OM intake and MN supply increased with increasing levels of hay. The digestibility decreased (p < 0.001) with increasing levels of supplementation. The results suggest that at least 300 g (395 g/kg dietary DM) of Desmodium hay is required in pseudostem diets, whereas 200 g (337 g/kg dietary DM) may be sufficient in corm diets for efficient nutrient utilization.
Title:    Feeding value of enset (Ensete ventricosum ), Desmodium intortum hay and untreated or urea and calcium oxide treated wheat straw for sheep
Authors:    Nurfeta, A.; Tolera, A.; Eik, L. O.; Sundst?l, F.;
Year:    2009
Journal:    Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition    94-104    93(1)
Abstract:
Feed intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization were evaluated in male sheep fed different fractions (leaf, pseudostem, corm, whole plant) of enset, untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide- (CaO or lime) treated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diets. All feeds, except D. intortum hay and enset leaf had low crude protein (CP) content. Non-fiber carbohydrate contents were higher in enset fractions, especially in pseudostem and corm relative to other feeds. Enset leaf and pseudostem had high calcium, phosphorus and manganese contents. Corm, whole enset and D. intortum hay were rich sources of zinc. Daily dry matter and CP intakes were higher (p < 0.05) in sheep fed D. intortum hay (830 and 133 g, respectively) than those fed pseudostem (92 and 7.8 g, respectively). Organic matter digestibilities were highest for corm (0.780) and whole enset (0.776) and lowest for D. intortum hay (0.534) and untreated wheat straw (0.522). The CP digestibility ranged from 0.636 in D. intortum hay to 0.408 in corm. Nitrogen (N) balance was highest (p < 0.05) in D. intortum hay (10.4 g/day) and lowest in corm (-1.3 g/day). Enset leaf could be a useful protein supplement whereas the pseudostem and corm could be good sources of energy.
Title:    Evaluation of the nutritive value of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) as livestock feed in southern Ethiopia.
Authors:    Nurfeta, A;
Year:    2008
Journal:    Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Thesis 2008:27    vii-pp    
Abstract:
These experiments were conducted to investigate the chemical composition and degradability of different morphological fractions of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) as well as the nutritive value of enset fractions fed as sole diets to sheep or supplemented to the basal diet of wheat straw. In experiment I, the effects of variety and plant fraction on chemical composition and degradability of 10 enset varieties collected from Sidama zone of southern Ethiopia. The contents of different macro and trace minerals were quantified and compared in different fractions and varieties of enset plants in experiment II. The 3rd experiment investigated the digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed different enset fractions, urea- and CaO-treated or untreated wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay as sole diet. In experiment IV, the performance of sheep fed a basal diet of wheat straw and a restricted amount of D. intortum hay supplemented with different enset components was determined. The supplementary value of different levels of enset leaf as a supplement to the basal diet of untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide (CaO or lime)-treated wheat straw was evaluated in experiment V. A significant variation in chemical composition and degradability was observed among enset varieties and fractions. The nutritive values of pseudostem and corm were low when fed as sole diets. Supplementing a basal diet of wheat straw with enset leaf had a varying effect on nutrient utilization. The nutritive value of the feed and performance of sheep decreased at low levels of enset leaf supplementation. The medium level of enset leaf supplementation resulted to better sheep performance and nutritive value of feed than the level supplementation. However, the high level supplementation had no beneficial effect. Urea- and CaO-treatment had no beneficial effect when fed with enset leaf compared to the untreated wheat straw.
Title:    Chemical composition and in sacco dry matter degradability of different morphological fractions of 10 enset (Ensete ventricosum ) varieties
Authors:    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Eik, Lars O.; Adugna Tolera; Sundst?l, Frik;
Year:    2008
Journal:    Animal Feed Science and Technology    55-73    146(43102)
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum ), also known as 'false banana', is a perennial herbaceous monocarpic plant, which grows in the southern and south-western parts of Ethiopia for human consumption and animal feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and dry matter (DM) degradability of four fractions (leaf lamina, leaf midrib, pseudostem and corm) of 10 selected enset varieties (Addo, Astara, Birra, Chacho, Derassa Addo, Genticha, Gossalo, Gulumo, Kiticha and Midasho). Samples were taken from 5- to 6-td-old enset during the main rainy season. For degradability studies, three rumen fistulated male sheep were used. The dry matter content (g/kg) ranged from 106 to 172 for leaf lamina, from 42 to 100 for leaf midrib, from 55 to 146 for pseudostem and from 173 to 293 for corm. The overall DM was lowest in leaf midrib (62 g/kg DM) and highest in corm (227 g/kg DM). The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content (g/kg DM) varied from 659 to 753 in leaf lamina, from 585 to 694 in leaf midrib, from 551 to 825 in pseudostem and from 339 to 893 in corm. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) content (g/kg DM) varied from 313 to 387 in leaf lamina, from 377 to 491 in leaf midrib, from 75 to 249 in pseudostem and from 52 to 84 in corm. The crude protein (CP) content (g/kg DM) of the leaf lamina was lowest in Gulumo (164) and highest in Genticha (245). CP content in the leaf midrib varied from 39 to 60. In pseudostem, CP content ranged from 25 to 50. CP content in corm varied from 18 to 100. The metabolizable energy (ME) content was lowest in leaf lamina (5.4 MJ/kg DM) and highest in corm (13.1 MJ/kg DM). DM degradability of the different fractions, at 96 h of incubation, differed in the following order: corm (0.942) > pseudostem (0.889) > leaf midrib (0.668) > leaf lamina (0.450). Washing loss ranged from 0.180 to 0.299 in leaf lamina, from 0.137 to 0.365 in leaf midrib, from 0.327 to 0.543 in pseudostem and from 0.464 to 0.645 in corm. Potential degradability (A + B) ranged from 0.423 to 0.797 in leaf lamina, from 0.602 to 0.817 in leaf midrib, from 0.796 to 0.988 in pseudostem and from 0.893 to 0.981 in corm. It is concluded that enset is a valuable dry-season feed, especially due to high CP contents of leaf lamina and high DM degradability of pseudostem and corm. The differences in chemical composition and degradability observed between fractions from different varieties of enset underline the importance of including feeding traits in future breeding programs for enset. ? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Title:    Assessment of different levels of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) corm as an energy supplement in sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay
Authors:    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Eik, Lars Olav;
Year:    2014
Journal:    Tropical Animal Health and Production    905-911    46(6)
Abstract:
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of enset corm as a supplement to sheep fed Rhodes grass hay. Thirty local yearling rams with a mean (∓SD) body weight of 16.97 (∓1.13) kg were used. Six sheep were allocated to each of the five treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were hay ad libitum and 129 g dry matter (DM) corm (T1), 188 g DM corm (T2), 248 g DM corm (T3), 100 g DM noug (T4) cake, and hay alone (T5). One hundred grams of noug seedcake was supplemented for all treatments except T5. Total DM and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep in T1, T2, and T3 were the highest (P < 0.05) compared with sheep in other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest DM and OM. The total crude protein (CP) intakes of sheep in T3 and T2 were greater (P < 0.05) than the other treatments, while sheep in T5 consumed the lowest CP. The apparent DM and OM digestibility coefficients of T1, T2, and T3 diets were higher (P < 0.05) compared with T5. The lowest (P < 0.05) CP digestibility was in T5, whereas the digestibility among the supplemented groups was similar (P > 0.05). The daily body weight gain for T1, T2, and T3 diets was greater (P < 0.05) than that of T5. The feed conversion efficiency for T1 and T2 was higher (P < 0.05) than T5, while T4 had an intermediate value. The highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention was in sheep fed T3 diet, while the lowest was in those fed T5. It is concluded that farmers can supplement enset corm at 129 g DM/day as an alternative energy source to improve the productivity of sheep for small-scale farmers under enset-livestock production systems. ? 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Title:    Yield and mineral content of ten enset (Ensete ventricosum ) varieties
Authors:    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Tolera, Adugna; Eik, Lars O.; Sundst?l, Frik;
Year:    2008
Journal:    Tropical Animal Health and Production    299-309    40(4)
Abstract:
A study was conducted to evaluate the macro and trace mineral contents often enset varieties collected from Sidama zone of southern Ethiopia. Samples of leaf lamina, leaf midrib, pseudostem and corm were taken from ten enset varieties at the age of 5 to 6 years during the main rainy season. The dry weight of each variety and fraction were also determined. Mineral contents in fractions of different enset varieties were analysed and compared with nutrient requirements of ruminants. The contribution of different enset fractions to the total dry weight was variable (P<0.05), the highest being from pseudostem and the lowest from leaf lamina. There were varietal differences (P<0.05) in macro and trace mineral content in different fractions except phosphorus (P) content of leaf lamina. Most enset fractions were rich sources of major minerals such as P, potassium (K), calcium (Ca) (except corm) and magnesium (Mg). Sodium (Na) content was very low. Most fractions were rich in iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), but deficient in copper (Cu), except leaf lamina. Zinc (Zn) content was high in corm, but low in other fractions. This account of the macro and trace mineral content of different enset varieties and fractions could help in strategic supplementation intended to alleviate mineral deficiencies.
Title:    Effect of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) leaf supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and body weight gain of sheep fed untreated or urea and calcium oxide-treated wheat straw
Authors:    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Tolera, Adugna; Eik, Lars O.; Sundst?l, Frik;
Year:    2009
Journal:    Livestock Science    134-142    122(43134)
Abstract:
The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementing leaves of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) to straw-based diets on the performance of sheep. In a growth experiment, which lasted for 76days, 36 male sheep (average body weight of 17.3 ∓ 0.58kg) were allotted to six treatments. A digestibility trial was conducted using three of the six sheep from each treatment. The treatments were untreated or 2% urea- and 3% calcium oxide-treated wheat straw as a basal diet supplemented with three levels of chopped fresh enset leaf: low (215g), medium (417g) and high (594g dry matter [DM] per day). The mean total DM intake tended to be higher (p < 0.1) at medium and high levels of supplementation than at the low level. The intake of total DM and nitrogen (N) was higher in treated than untreated straw. There was no significant difference in organic matter (OM) intake among treatments. Sheep fed medium and high levels of enset leaf supplements had similar weight gain but higher than those supplemented at low level. The digestibility of DM was not significantly different among treatments whereas the digestibility of OM tended to be higher at medium than other levels of supplementation. The digestibility of N was lower (p < 0.001) for treated than untreated straw whereas the digestibility of neutral detergent fibre was higher (p < 0.001) in treated straw. The highest mean N retention was at medium level of supplementation. There were no significant differences in total purine derivatives excretion, absorbed microbial purines and microbial N supply among treatments. It could be concluded that there is no major beneficial effect beyond medium level of enset leaf supplementation in both treated and untreated straw. For efficient utilization of enset leaf, sources of fermentable energy are necessary. ? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Title:    The supplementary value of different parts of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) to sheep fed wheat straw and Desmodium intortum hay
Authors:    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Tolera, Adugna; Eik, Lars O.; Sundst?l, Frik;
Year:    2008
Journal:    Livestock Science    22-30    119(43103)
Abstract:
A study which included growth and digestibility experiments was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of a) enset pseudostem, b) enset corm or c) enset mixture (containing equal amounts of pseudostem, corm and enset leaf on a DM basis) as a supplement to a basal diet of wheat straw fed ad libitum and restricted amounts of Desmodium intortum (Desmodium) hay to sheep. During the 71-day growth experiment, 18 one-td-old male sheep of indigenous breed with mean body weight (BW) of 20.2 (∓ 0.43) kg were randomly assigned to the three treatments. In the digestibility experiment, three male sheep with mean BW of 19.5 (∓ 1.06) kg were assigned to each treatment. Sheep supplemented with enset mixture consumed more (P < 0.001) wheat straw DM (335g/day) than those supplemented with pseudostem (295g/day). No differences were found in total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake between diets supplemented with pseudostem, corm and enset mixture. Total nitrogen (N) intake (g/day) was higher (P = 0.0073) in sheep fed the diet with enset mixture (12.2) followed by corm (11.3) and pseudostem (10.7). The apparent digestibility of DM was higher (P < 0.001) in pseudostem (0.53) followed by corm (0.46) and enset mixture (0.41) supplemented sheep. Organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and N digestibility were similar among treatments. The amount of N lost in urine and faeces and the N-retention was similar among treatments. There were no differences in gain/day in sheep fed diets with pseudostem (29.3g), corm (27.0g) and enset mixture (36.5g). It is concluded that supplementation of a wheat straw/Desmodium diet with enset fractions could be used equally at least to maintain body weight during the dry season. ? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Title:    Indigenous knowledge, use and on-farm management of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Olango, Temesgen M.; Tesfaye, Bizuayehu; Catellani, Marcello; P, Mario E.;
Year:    2014
Journal:    Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine    10    1
Abstract:
Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman is a major food security crop in Southern Ethiopia, where it was originally domesticated and during millennia became pivotal crop around which an entire farming system has developed. Although its cultivation is highly localized, the enset-based farming system provides sustenance to more than 20 million people. Precise ethnobotanical information of intra-specific enset diversity and local knowledge on how communities maintain, manage and benefit from enset genetic resources is imperative for the promotion, conservation and improvement of this crop and its farming system. METHODS: This study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia among the Wolaita 'enset culture' community. The research sample consisted of 270 households from 12 Kebeles (villages) representing three agro-ecological ranges. By establishing Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) based interactions and applying ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires, information on the use and management of enset diversity, and its associated folk-biosystematics, food traditions and material culture was collected and analyzed. RESULTS: While enset agriculture is seen as cultural heritage and identity for the Wolaita, enset intra-specific diversity holds scenic, prestige and symbolic values for the household. In the present study we tred 67 enset landraces under cultivation, and through a comprehensive literature review we identified 28 landraces reported from other areas of Wolaita, but not encountered in our survey. Landraces, identified using 11 descriptors primarily related to agro-morphological traits, are named after perceived places of origin, agro-morphological characteristics and cooking quality attributes. Folk classification of enset is based on its domestication status, 'gender', agro-ecological adaptability and landrace suitability for different food and other uses (fiber, feed, medicinal). Enset as a food crop is used to prepare 10 different dishes in Wolaita, 8 of which are exclusively prepared using enset, and their consumption ranges from daily staple to specialty food in festive occasions and ceremonies. On-farm landrace diversity and richness is guided by household needs; its dynamics is managed through regular propagation, harvesting restrain, control of landrace composition and arrangement in the enset homegardens. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported on the knowledge system, socio-cultural process and community practices that drive the maintenance of intra-specific on-farm enset diversity in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia. The information is crucial for developing community based complementary in situ and ex situ conservation strategies to foster conservation of enset genetic resources and associated indigenous knowledge system.
Title:    Development of SSR markers and genetic diversity analysis in enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman), an orphan food security crop from Southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Olango, Temesgen Magule; Tesfaye, Bizuayehu; Pagnotta, Mario Augusto; P, Mario Enrico; Catellani, Marcello;
Year:    2015
Journal:    BMC Genetics    16    1
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman; Musaceae) is a multipurpose drought-tolerant food security crop with high conservation and improvement concern in Ethiopia, where it supplements the human calorie requirements of around 20 million people. The crop also has an enormous potential in other regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is known only as a wild plant. Despite its potential, genetic and genomic studies supporting breeding programs and conservation efforts are very limited. Molecular methods would substantially improve current conventional approaches. Here we report the development of the first set of SSR markers from enset, their cross-transferability to Musa spp., and their application in genetic diversity, relationship and structure assessments in wild and cultivated enset germplasm. RESULTS: SSR markers specific to E. ventricosum were developed through pyrosequencing of an enriched genomic library. Primer pairs were designed for 217 microsatellites with a repeat size > 20 bp from 900 candidates. Primers were validated in parallel by in silico and in vitro PCR approaches. A total of 67 primer pairs successfully amplified specific loci and 59 showed polymorphism. A subset of 34 polymorphic SSR markers were used to study 70 both wild and cultivated enset accessions. A large number of alleles were detected along with a moderate to high level of genetic diversity. AMOVA revealed that intra-population allelic variations contributed more to genetic diversity than inter-population variations. UPGMA based phylogenetic analysis and Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components show that wild enset is clearly separated from cultivated enset and is more closely related to the out-group Musa spp. No cluster pattern associated with the geographical regions, where this crop is grown, was observed for enset landraces. Our results reaffirm the long tradition of extensive seed-sucker exchange between enset cultivating communities in Southern Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The first set of genomic SSR markers were developed in enset. A large proportion of these markers were polymorphic and some were also transferable to related species of the genus Musa. This study demonstrated the usefulness of the markers in assessing genetic diversity and structure in enset germplasm, and provides potentially useful information for developing conservation and breeding strategies in enset.
Title:    The exquisite political fragrance of enset: Silent protest in Southern Ethiopia through culinary themes and variations
Authors:    Peveri, V;
Year:    2015
Journal:    Partecipazione e Conflitto    555-584    8(2)
Abstract:
The populations of South-central Ethiopia have for centuries based their livelihoods on the products of enset. In terms of food and economic security, enset has been described by farmers as a 'bank', its persistence in extreme situations, or, as put in literature, resilience, plays a vital role in environmental conservation. Yet outside the area of origin and current cultivation it is arbitrarily stigmatized, especially by people located in the Northern parts of the country, as a 'poor' cultivation and only suitable for marginal groups. At the backdrop of this rhetoric of distinction the following questions will be addressed: what does the fostering of competing cuisines reveal about the (carefully state-orchestrated) process of nation- building in Ethiopia? Who are the actors implicated in the promotion of 'good' and the incrimination of 'bad' cuisines? The article provides an emic approach to hunger, food security, and poverty, in contrast to the planning by bureaucrats and scientists who are likely to miss the perspective of the voiceless agents, whose everyday resistance is often exercised through silent protest, inside the kitchen and the vegetable garden, and not in the public arena. ? 2015 - University of Salento.
Title:    Sidama agro-pastoralism and ethnobiological classification of its primary plant, Enset (Ensete ventricosum )
Authors:    Quinlan, Marsha B.; Quinlan, Robert J.; Dira, Samuel Jilo;
Year:    2014
Journal:    Ethnobiology Letters    116-125    5(1)
Abstract:
Enset is an essential plant for the Ethiopian Sidama system of agropastoralism. Sidama agropastoralism and the folk taxonomy of enset is presented here in ethnographic context. One of several societies of Ethiopia?s enset complex, the highland Sidama are among the most wholly reliant on enset and maintain more enset varieties in their gardens than other groups. Sidama agro-pastoral systems revolve around human-enset-cattle interaction: Sidama eat low-protein parts of enset; cattle eat high-protein parts of enset; Sidama get protein from dairy; Sidama fertilize enset with cattle manure. In the Sidama language, enset offers an example of Hunn?s generic elevation within the framework of Berlinian perceptual-taxonomic theory. Weesho (enset) may serve both as a folk generic taxon and a life-form taxon depending on the frame of reference. Such expansion allows for an intermediate taxa translating to ?male? or ?female? ensets, followed by generic and specific taxa for kinds or ?breeds? of enset. Generic elevation offers descriptive magnification of nomenclature for enset, a most salient species among Sidama people.
Title:    Vulnerability and Resilience of Sidama Enset and Maize Farms in Southwestern Ethiopia
Authors:    Quinlan, Robert J.; Quinlan, Marsha B.; Dira, Samuel; Caudell, Mark; Sooge, Amalo; Assoma, Awoke Amzaye;
Year:    2015
Journal:    Journal of Ethnobiology    314-336    35(2)
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) is the traditional staple food of Sidama people who live in Rift Valley lowlands to highlands in southwest Ethiopia. Enset is drought resistant, but it matures slowly, requires substantial manure inputs from cattle, and intensive processing. Maize, introduced to Sidamaland in the mid-twentieth century, is common in midlands and lowlands. Maize matures rapidly and provides more kcal/kg than enset, but it is prone to failure in dry years and requires chemical fertilizer, which is subject to global market price fluctuations. We compare cultural ecology, productivity, failure, and resilience of enset and maize in 410 farms across four Sidama ecological zones. The risks and benefits of enset and maize are complexly associated with variable local environments. Enset offers drought-resistant produce that, with sufficient manure inputs, is adequate for subsistence in the wet highlands, but its performance is more variable elsewhere. Fertilized, maize yields larger harvests than enset, but vulnerability to rainfall and global processes create special challenges. Maize and enset appear to be in different adaptive cycle phases: maize grows quickly and maize farms rebounded from crop loss within four years. Only half of enset farms recovered within six years after crop failure, complicating farming decisions in an environment with tremendous localized variation. In general, the Sidama zone shows a pattern of regional diversity with local specialization for maize only, enset only, or mixed maize and enset cultivation. In some areas maize has become a preferred crop and food for younger people.
Title:    Resilience and Vulnerability: Enset Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia.
Authors:    Rahmato, Dessalegn;
Year:    1995
Journal:    Journal of Ethiopian Studies    23-51    28(1)
Abstract:
Based on fieldwork carried out since the early 1980s, the author describes the dynamics of 'enset' agriculture in Wollaita, south Ethiopia, and shows the interconnection between 'enset' cultivation on the one hand, and demography, migration, property devolution and medical history on the other. He discusses the resilience and vulnerability of the 'enset' system, and the crisis it is presently undergoing, in terms of the inherent characteristics of the 'enset' system itself. He concludes that the 'enset' system today is paying the price of its successes in the past. 'Enset' has imprisoned its peasantry with its promises of resilience in the face of natural stress, its space economy, its undemanding labour requirements and the security it has often provided. Agricultural intensification has failed to arrest the increasing competition for resources and the acceleration of demographic expansion. Moreover, the immense demographic pressure on the land today may in fact drive the system towards technological regression. 'Enset' agriculture is in urgent need of a sound and long-term solution. App., bibliogr., notes, ref.
Title:    Mapping the supply and demand of Enset crop to improve food security in Southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Sahle, Mesfin; Yeshitela, Kumelachew; Saito, Osamu;
Year:    2018
Journal:    Agronomy for Sustainable Development    38    1
Abstract:
Food security is a worldwide key td in the context of climate change, requiring to plan local agriculture and make decisions. In order to proceed, it is essential to understand the value of ecosystem services provided by agricultural landscapes. Here, we quantified and mapped the supply and demand of an indigenous food, kocho (i.e., a bread made from starch derived from the Enset plant), in the Wabe River catchment of Gurage Mountains in Southern Ethiopia. To proceed, we measured the pseudostem and plant heights within 100 m2 sample plots of Enset farms. Enset home garden spatial features were extracted from satellite imagery, and a household questionnaire survey was administered along with population census data. We used suitable models to quantify the yield and demand of kocho, and the data were interpolated, analyzed, and mapped with the ArcGIS software. The results show that the average catchment-wide squeezed (moisture-removed) kocho yield is 16.2 kg/plant, which is equivalent to 417 tons/ha. The annual yield is 6500 kg/ha, and 4.5 million tons of kocho are available as standing stock. However, the spatial distribution of Enset production and its yield are not uniform in the catchment, and the largest stock is found in tepid moist and tepid humid agroecologies. The average demand of kocho per person is fulfilled by 16 Enset plants (i.e., 289 kg) with only 38% of households able to satisfy their demand from their own home garden. There is a high per capita kocho demand in warm sub-humid agroecological zones and a low demand in cool moist zones. While the supply-demand budget shows that there is a high supply of kocho in most areas, the demand is greater than the supply in 25% of the catchment. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that through quantification and mapping of the supply to demand of kocho, the Enset crop contributes to food security in the catchment and needs to improve its production as it is spatially not uniform. This study provides a data set for planners and decision-makers to enhance the production of kocho and to satisfy the current supply-demand gap.
Title:    Diversity, Challenges and Potentials of Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) Production: In Case of Offa Woreda, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Shumbulo, Abrham; Gecho, Yishak; Tora, Melese;
Year:    2012
Journal:    Food Science and Quality Management    24-31    7(1974)
Abstract:
The main objectives of the study were to investigate the existing diversity of enset clones selected for different purposes; its challenges and contribution of enset production for sustainable livelihood security of the rural community in the study area. The result revealed that farmers were rich in diversity in that they grow various types of clones in the same farm for their intended purposes. Among diverse enset clones grown in the area, the top 5 clones which are selected for kocho, workey and bulla include halla, falakiya, tuzuma,nakaka and gena . Similarly, clones selected for amicho (corm) include arkiya, nakaka, gena, chichiya and peluwa ; and those selected for fiber include halla, falakiya, tuzuma, maziya, and argama . Generally, clones halla, nakaka, tuzuma, maziya and kekeruwa are some of the clones of multipurpose. Enset plays a vital role in contributing food and livelihood security of majority of the society in the study area. In line with this, about 63% of the sample farmers reported that the yield of enset is higher than other major crops including root and tuber crops produced in the area. Farmers identified the major challenges and about 55% of the sample farmers indicated that land shortage was the 1 st serious problem in the area followed by disease and recurrent drought which account for about 16% and 14.7%, respectively. Therefore, critical reduction of enset production and its diversity calls for future collective action to generate new technology in every aspect including production, processing and extension services to utilize the crop potential. Furthermore, clone of multipurpose such as halla, nakaka and tuzuma need to be promoted further to utilize crop potential and to contribute for sustainable livelihood security of rural people. td: enset, clone, yield, challenges, diversity, Sustainable and livelihood
Title:    Microbial succession in enset fermentation
Authors:    Tariku Hunduma, Mogessie Ashenafi;
Year:    2011
Journal:    International Journal of Food, Nutrition and Public Health    39-51    4(1)
Abstract:
Tariku Hunduma1 and Mogessie Ashenafi* Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia td: Effect of altitude on microbial succession during traditional enset fermentation was determined at enset culture sites, 2908 (high altitude) and 2252 (mid altitude) meters above sea level. Counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria showed differences between the study sites. The warmer temperature of the fermenting mass at the mid altitude site contributed to the rapid proliferation of microorganisms and rapid fermentation process and hence shorter fermentation time (112 days) than at the high altitude site (142 days). The microorganisms isolated from traditional enset fermentation process, at both sites were similar. Bacillus spp. and Lactic acid bacteria dominated the fermentative microflora at the initial and later stages of the fermentation, respectively. The coliforms and other members of enterobacteriaceae contributed to initial lowering of the pH of the fermenting mass. At about day 15, the homofermentative lactobacilli took over the process and dominated the flora till the end of fermentation. Following the proliferation of the lactobacilli, the pH decreased and titratable acidity increased. Count of yeasts remained low throughout the fermentation process. The coliforms and enterobacteriaceae were undetectable following domination of the microflora by LAB. The decline in moisture content of the fermenting mass was relatively faster at the mid altitude than at the high altitude site. Some Gram-negative rods and other Gram-positive cocci were occasionally encountered at lower levels. Almost all isolates were amylolytic than proteolytic and lipolytic due to high carbohydrate content of the substrate. This study showed there could be differences in microbial succession from place to place depending on various factors. td:
Title:    Traditional Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) Processing Techniques in Some Parts of West Shewa Zone, Ethiopia
Authors:    Tariku, H.; Mogessie, A.;
Year:    2011
Journal:    Journal of Agriculture and Development    37-57    2(1)
Abstract:
Enset, (Ensete ventricosum Welw) Cheesman, plant serves as a staple food for about 20% of Ethiopian population. Processing of enset for food is based on traditional knowledge of the people and varies among different enset growing regions. The objective of the present study was, therefore, to assess and document indigenous knowledge of traditional enset processing method in one of enset growing areas of West Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. The study was conducted using Participatory Research Appraisal (PRA) system. which involved 132 respondents in the high altitude and 126 in the mid-attitude sites. The major processing steps, including, the traditional tools used, selection of mature enset plants, preparation of fermentation pits and clearing of processing spots, pulverization and decortication, bulla extraction, gamma preparation, storage of processed biomass in the pit were described. Matured enset plants were identified by locally established maturity signs, such as, size of the central shoot, appearance of inflorescence and exposure of the corm. Among the respondents, 62.1% of those in the high altitude and 93.6% in the mid altitude areas affirmed that enset plant
Title:    Analysis of Vulnerability and Determinants of Enset Production in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Tenaye, A.; Geta, E.;
Year:    2009
Journal:    Acta Horticulturae    663-668    806
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) is endemic to Ethiopia and cultivated as important food crop in southern, southwestern and central parts of the country. About 13 million of Ethiopia's population depend on it as staple and co-staple food crop. The area coverage of enset is estimated to be 167900 ha, of which over 67% is in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Region. In Wolaita, enset is mainly cultivated for food, fibre, medicine, source of animal feed and as income generating crop. It also serves as an indication of prestige and wealth. However, enset production has been decreasing alarmingly in terms of area coverage, production and number of clones grown over the last 2 decades. The concerns of this study are assessing the extent and trend of enset production and identifying factors influencing enset production in the area. The 3-stage random sampling technique was employed to select a total of 185 farm households from the Wolaita zone. The information gathered from different sources were analysed using descriptive statistics. Decrease in enset productivity area started even before the time of Wolaita agricultural development unit in 1970. The major factors that influenced enset production were drought, diseases, shift to other crops, small land holding, population pressure, high consumption rate, low soil fertility, poor management practices, mole rats and hunger. Many enset clones are particularly vulnerable, such as Chichia, Nekaka, Archia, Suitia, Mazia, Pelua, Goderia, Katane, Zinkia, Geftenwa, Siraria, Bullua, Tuzuma, Wanadia, Orgamma, Keberia and Banga, which are the major ones. These clones were also preferred for amocho consumption especially in drought season, which again aggravate their vulnerability.
Title:    Enset farming in Ethiopia. I. Soil nutrient status in Shoa and Sidamo regions
Authors:    Tensaye, Asnaketch Weide; Lindn, Brje; Ohlander, Lars;
Year:    1998
Journal:    Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis    193-210    29(43102)
Abstract:
td Soil samples were collected from farms in two enset (Ensete ventricosum ) growing regions of Ethiopia and analyzed for plant nutrients. For comparative reasons, soil samples were taken both from fields where enset had been continuously cultivated for several decades and from other fields: annual cropping, grazing, or uncultivated. The results reveal that the enset fields studied had higher soil organic matter contents and better nutritional status than fields used otherwise, not only in the topsoil but also in the subsoil. This indicates more sustainable cultivation with maintained fertility in the enset fields. Possible explanations of this are discussed.
Title:    Diversity and distribution patterns of enset landraces in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Tesfaye, Bizuayehu; Ldders, Peter;
Year:    2003
Journal:    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution    359-371    50(4)
Abstract:
Diversity and distribution of enset landraces (clones) were investigated in 300 randomly selected peasant households at ten different locations in the Sidama region of Ethiopia using presence-or-absence data. A total of 86 named landraces were tred, making the region an area of remarkably high enset landrace diversity. A substantial fraction of the landraces had a restricted distribution range and low abundance while a number were moderately common with the remaining few being cosmopolitan. Regional distribution was positively correlated with local abundance, such that more widespread landraces were also typically more abundant (r = 0.78, p < .01). Landrace diversity was not evenly distributed throughout the region, the highest diversity being tred in mountain areas (r = 0.71, p < .05). Farmers exchange planting materials extensively, resulting in a fairly high (up to 70%) coefficient of similarity among sites. Implications for the collection and conservation of enset genetic resources are discussed.
Title:    Analysis of genetic diversity among cultivated enset (Ensete ventricosum ) populations from Essera and Kefficho, southwestern part of Ethiopia using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) marker
Authors:    Tobiaw;
Year:    2011
Journal:    African Journal of Biotechnology    15697-15709    10(70)
Abstract:
This study was conducted with the objective to investigate the genetic variation among populations of cultivated enset (Enset ventricosum). Leaf samples for 71 enset plants were collected from two areas of southwestern (SW) Ethiopia (Kefficho and Essera). Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) as a molecular marker was used to assess genetic diversity both within and between populations using two ISSR primers (834 and 826). A total of 26 clear and reproducible bands were amplified from the two primers. Both the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and neighbor joining trees were constructed for each individual and population using Jaccard’s similarity coefficient. The trees indicated two separate clusters which are based on the origin of populations and few mixing of samples between regions was observed. The principal coordinated (PCO) analysis also recovered the UPGMA and neighbor joining trees groups. All parameters indicated that the clones of enset from Kefficho are more diverse than clones from Essera. Moreover, partitioning of Shannon’s diversity index showed that the majority of the variations were observed within populations than between the two populations. In conclusion all the diversity parameters confirm the existence of high genetic diversity within the study populations. Moreover, it also indicates that ISSR markers can be successfully applied for the assessment of genetic diversity of this species.\r \r \t \r \r \tKey words: Ensete ventricosum , Essera, Ethiopia, genetic diversity, inter simple sequence repeats, Kefficho.
Title:    Special td: Bananas, plantains and enset I
Authors:    Tripathi, L;
Year:    2010
Journal:    Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology    35065    4(1)
Abstract:
This special td includes 14 studies conducted to harness the potential of banana and plantain as a small farmer crop, and systems are proposed for cultivar deployment and the propagation of clean planting material that need to be developed for the specific conditions of each country or region. Topics covered are: biological hardening - a new approach to enhance resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses in micropropagated plants; bioecology and management of the banana skipper ( Erionota thrax); Banana protoplasts, culture and its applications; biology, geographical distribution, prevention and control of the Enset Root Mealybug, Cataenococcus ensete (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Ethiopia; factors influencing the development of black streak disease and the resulting yield loss in plantain in the humid forests of West and Central Africa; micropropagation and field performance of 'Malbhog' ( Musa paradisiaca, AAB group): a popular banana cultivar with high keeping quality of North East India; plant regeneration from callus cultures of Diploid Bananas ( Musa acuminata, AA Group) 'Kluai Sa' and 'Kluai Leb Mu Nang' and analysis of ploidy stability using flow cytometry; rapid propagation of two seedless diploid (AB) land races of Musa through in vitro culture of shoot and inflorescence apices; molecular verification and diversity analysis of Indonesian BB, AAB and ABB Banana Cultivars; transcriptome analysis of leaves and roots of Musa balbisiana var. 'Pisang Klutuk Wulung'; DATAMusa - a Database for ortholog genes from Musa; growth and multiplication ability of Musa species using the whole-corm technique; mineral fertilizers improve the sensory quality of East African highland bananas.
Title:    Analysis of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) indigenous production methods and farm-based biodiversity in major enset-growing regions of southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P. C.;
Year:    2002
Journal:    Experimental Agriculture    291-315    38(3)
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) production is declining, and it faces genetic erosion due to drought, diseases and population pressure. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and additional formal survey studies on 315 households were conducted over three consecutive years (1998-2000) in the Sidama, Wolaita and Hadiya ethnic. regions of southern Ethiopia to assess traditional cultivation methods, analyse the production systems, and evaluate farm-based enset biodiversity. The regions differ in terms of cultural background, resources, farming systems, population density, and agro-ecology. Furthermore, the methods for initiating suckers and the frequency of transplanting vary among the three regions. Diverse enset landraces were identified in the Sidama (52), Wolaita (55) and Hadiya (59) regions. Sidama farmers had the highest number of landraces per farm, 57% and 21% more than found on Wolaita and Hadiya farms respectively. In all three regions, landrace diversity was influenced by household resources, cultural background, population pressure, and agro-ecology. There were significant differences in the average number of enset landraces and livestock between rich and poor households in the three regions. Rich farmers had more land and manure-producing livestock, and they planted more enset landraces than did poor farmers. In all three regions, women proved to be more experienced than men in identifying enset landraces. The number of enset landraces per farm was significantly correlated with other household characteristics for resource-rich Sidama farmers and with the number of livestock and area of farmland for resource-rich Hadiya farmers. This suggests that middle-income or poor farmers concentrate on annual crops, rather than on growing the perennial enset plant. More research is needed to identify, characterize and conserve genetic diversity, and to improve the cultivation practices for enset. The cultural, socio-economic, and gender-associated aspects of enset cultivation need to be assessed to understand the dynamics of enset biodiversity.
Title:    Effects of repetitive transplanting and leaf pruning on growth and dry matter partitioning of enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman)
Authors:    Tsegaye, Admasu;
Year:    2007
Journal:    Journal of Agronomy    45-52    6(1)
Abstract:
Crop establishment methods affected the growth, dry matter production and distribution in enset (Ensete ventricosum ) plants studied at the Areka Research Centre, North Omo, Southern Ethiopia. Enset suckers transplanted only once (i.e. directly into permanent fields) flowered at about 104 weeks; flowering triggered plant senescence and shifted assimilate partitioning towards the developing inflorescence. Enset plants transplanted twice flowered at about 234 weeks, and those transplanted thrice flowered within 260 weeks. At the end of the experiment, dry matter yields per plant (excluding roots) were higher for plants transplanted twice than for plants transplanted once or thrice. At 104 weeks after separating the suckers from the corm, the production per ha and per td for transplanting once was 148 and 25% of 'kocho' dry matter more than for transplanting twice or thrice, respectively. However, at 130 weeks after separating suckers from the corm, production of dry matter of fermented kocho per ha and td were not significantly different for plants transplanted once or twice. The dry matter loss during the fermentation process ranged from 41 to 57%. Repetitive partial defoliation by removing four to five lower leaves at 6-month intervals did not affect the rate of progress from planting to flowering or the fresh and dry matter production rates of kocho after 104 weeks (before fermentation) after first transplanting. Later during the growth period, however, continued leaf pruning significantly reduced dry matter production rate of kocho (before fermentation). At both dates, leaf pruning effects were significant for values after fermentation. Transplanting suckers directly into permanent fields may be practised to obtain early yields and overcome disease problems. More frequent transplanting often delays flowering and results in higher yields per plant. To practise this method, however, suitable cropping systems and techniques need to be established that allow farmers to have enset plants at different developmental stages in order to have enough mature enset plants that can be harvested for food every td. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
Title:    Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) kocho yield under different crop establishment methods as compared to yields of other carbohydrate-rich food crops
Authors:    Tsegaye, Admasu; Struik, P. C.;
Year:    2001
Journal:    NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences    81-94    49(1)
Abstract:
The kocho yield of enset, in terms of weight and energy, under different crop establishment methods, was investigated at Areka Research Centre, southern Ethiopia, and compared with the yields of other main starch crops grown in the country. The maximum fresh weights of kocho after fermentation from enset plants transplanted once (T1), wice (T2) or thrice (T3) were 25.9, 54.1 and 37.1 kg plant-1, respectively. When yield was expressed per unit of space and time, the maximum fresh yields of fermented kocho (70% moisture) from T1, T2 and T3 were 19, 33 and 26 t ha-1 y-1, respectively. The kocho yield of enset per unit space and time, in terms of edible dry weight and energy, was much higher than the yields of any other crop cultivated in Ethiopia. Second to enset, the root and tuber crops also produced high yields of dry matter and energy. The cultivation of enset and root and tuber crops in densely populated areas under low input conditions can sustain the population better than that of other crops. Moreover, enset produces various by-products and the prolonged presence of a closed canopy has an ecological advantage similar to that of forest.
Title:    Growth, radiation use efficiency and yield potential of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) at different sites in southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Tsegaye, Admasu; Struik, P. C.;
Year:    2003
Journal:    Annals of Applied Biology    71-81    142(1)
Abstract:
Knowledge on the physiological parameters that determine the growth of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) and on how these parameters develop over time and affect yield under field conditions is scarce. Field experiments were carried out at three sites in southern Ethiopia using suckers of several clones to generate crop physiological parameters and to describe the time course of leaf number, leaf area and plant height. Yield potentials at different sites were estimated using these parameters and weather data, and compared with the actual yield. Plant height and LAI increased faster at Awassa and Areka than at Hagereselam because of a higher leaf appearance rate associated with temperatures being closer to the optimum. The trend in plant height was best described by a logistic function, whereas the trend in LAI was best described by a logistic function only at Awassa and Areka. A high leaf appearance rate (0.18 leaves day?1) during early growth at Awassa and Areka made it possible that leaves that were senesced during unfavourable climatic conditions could be rapidly replaced without strong fluctuation in leaf area index. At Hagereselam, however, the rate of leaf appearance (0.09 leaves day?1) was too small to compensate for the decline in the number of green leaves per plant during adverse conditions and thus LAI fluctuated over the whole growing period. The trend in fraction of PAR intercepted was best described by a generalised logistic function. At 300 days after transplanting the suckers, LAI reached a value of 4.5 and enset clones intercepted 92?97% of incoming PAR. The mean extinction coefficient was between 0.56?0.91 and radiation use efficiency (RUE) ranged from 1.43?2.67 g MJ?1. Dry matter kocho yield potentials of 17.1 to 33.9 t ha-1 yr-1 were estimated for enset clones. Important yield potential differences existed between clones mainly because of differences in radiation use efficiency that was probably partly associated with viral infection. The average ratio of actual yield:yield potential (0.24) was low mainly because of large losses associated with traditional fermentation techniques, yield reducing cultivation methods such as repetitive transplanting and leaf pruning, presence of diseases, lack of adequate fertilisation and shortage and uneven distribution of rainfall.
Title:    Globalization and neo -liberalization: Challenges and opportunities to enset crop -based agricultural communities and their farming system in Ethiopia
Authors:    Waktola Geda, Tsedale;
Year:    2009
Journal:    ProQuest Dissertations and Theses    201    503:00:00
Abstract:
Neo-liberal globalization has challenges and opportunities for rural agrarian communities. Creating alternate market outlet is one of the opportunities rendered by neo-liberal globalization. Furthermore, those that afford to buy agricultural inputs have benefited from scientific agricultural and technological innovations. The challenges include distributing to all farming communities the benefits from neo-liberal globalization. In chapter 2, the conceptual definitions of globalization, neo-liberalization, governance and other concepts and relevant literature are presented. The influence of those aforementioned factors on the socio-economic changes in the selected traditional farming communities in Ethiopia has been analyzed. In chapter 3, the influence of neo-liberal globalization on gender roles is examined. In chapter 4, linkages between the three phenomena: traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), culture and globalization and their influence on selected traditional rural farming communities is analyzed. The overall objective of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the current threats to food security in Ethiopia. Ethiopia is selected for this study because the country is unique in being able to provide information on the selected topic. Enset crop is elected because it plays a crucial role in the food security currently estimated for more than 15 million farming communities. A case of Gurage is selected, since Gurage ethnic group is one of the major ethnic groups that depend on enset crop as their staple food. A qualitative method that includes observation, semi-structured interviews, document analysis, and field work has been followed. Some of the key findings reveal that: (1) Consensus among policy makers, researchers and agricultural offices heads and agricultural extension workers on the limited contribution of neo-liberal globalization of agriculture to enset crop development; (2) Gender role shift has been observed where a woman takes over the traditional men's role in agricultural production; and (3) recent transitions in enset crop production have been observed in response to globalization. In summary, this study reveals that despite the limited benefits by traditional rural farming communities from neo-liberal globalization of agriculture, there still are various opportunities that can be tapped through partnership among government agricultural offices, non-governmental organizations and farming communities that creates local-global linkages.
Title:    Farmers' knowledge and perception of enset Xanthomonas wilt in southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Yemataw, Z.; Mekonen, A.; Chala, A.; Tesfaye, K.; Mekonen, K.; Studholme, D. J.; Sharma, K.;
Year:    2017
Journal:    Agriculture and Food Security    6    1
Abstract:
Enset Xanthomonas wilt (EXW) was first reported in 1939 and continues to threaten the sustainability of farming systems in south and southwestern parts of Ethiopia. The present study was conducted in the central zones of southern Ethiopia to assess farmers? knowledge and perception about EXW, its etiology and mode of transmission, and its implications for the management of EXW. A survey was conducted in 240 households across Hadiya, Kembata-Tembaro and Wolaita zones of southern Ethiopia using focus group discussions and a structured questionnaire to assess farmers? perceptions of causes and modes of EXW transmission, and their knowledge on symptom identification. In addition, EXW prevalence, incidence and severity were determined for each zone. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The results showed that a significant number of farmers are aware of EXW, its symptoms, etiology and transmission and spread, but they are not able to readily relate modes of spread to control methods. Since 2002, EXW became prominent in Hadiya, with the highest EXW incidence and severity, followed by Wolaita, and Kembata-Tembaro. Farmers identified EXW as the major cause for declining production and productivity of enset in the region. EXW has spread widely and rapidly in southern Ethiopia, with significant socioeconomic impacts in smallholders? livelihoods. There is a need for developing knowledge-based strategies and awareness-raising campaign for EXW management.
Title:    Morphological variation and inter-relationships of quantitative traits in enset (Ensete ventricosum (welw.) Cheesman) germplasm from South and South-Western Ethiopia
Authors:    Yemataw, Zerihun; Chala, Alemayehu; Ambachew, Daniel; Studholme, David; Grant, Murray; Tesfaye, Kassahun;
Year:    2017
Journal:    Plants    56    6(4)
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) is Ethiopia?s most important root crop. A total of 387 accessions collected from nine different regions of Ethiopia were evaluated for 15 quantitative traits at Areka Agricultural Research Centre to determine the extent and pattern of distribution of morphological variation. The variations among the accessions and regions were significant (p 0.01) for all the 15 traits studied. Mean for plant height, central shoot weight before grating, and fermented squeezed kocho yield per hectare per td showed regional variation along an altitude gradient and across cultural differences related to the origin of the collection. Furthermore, there were significant correlations among most of the characters. This included the correlation among agronomic characteristics of primary interest in enset breeding such as plant height, pseudostem height, and fermented squeezed kocho yield per hectare per td. Altitude of the collection sites also significantly impacted the various characteristics studied. These results reveal the existence of significant phenotypic variations among the 387 accessions as a whole. Regional differentiations were also evident among the accessions. The implication of the current results for plant breeding, germplasm collection, and in situ and ex situ genetic resource conservation are discussed.
Title:    Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) clone selection by farmers and their cultural practices in southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Yemataw, Zerihun; Mohamed, Hussein; Diro, Mulugeta; Addis, Temesgen; Blomme, Guy;
Year:    2014
Journal:    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution    1091-1104    61(6)
Abstract:
Enset, Ensete ventricosum , is a crop that contributes to food security for more than 20 % of Ethiopia's population. One clone never fulfills all the ecological and social requirements and hence farmers maintain a diverse range of enset cultivars on their farm. The objective of this work was to assess morphological and use value related characterization and document the indigenous knowledge of farmers on classification, cultivation and utilization of enset. A total of 280 farm households in seven zones were surveyed using individual household interviews. The observed traits showed low to high levels of variability among enset clones with a Shannon?Weaver diversity index (H 0) value of 0.154?0.827 for bulla (extracted starch) quality and midrib color, respectively. More-over, the overall H 0 mean of 0.399 confirmed the existence of low to medium levels of phenotypic variation. The mean squares due to genotypes were highly significant (P B 0.01) for all the quantitative traits studied, suggesting the presence of substantial genetic variability among the 165 enset clones. Kocho (fermented starch) yield had significant positive correlation with bulla quality and plant vigor. Knowl-edge of farmers' practices is currently used to validate agronomic innovations and inform the setting up of a network of phenotype collections managed by farmers.
Title:    Exploiting indigenous knowledge of subsistence farmers' for the management and conservation of Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) (musaceae family) diversity on-farm
Authors:    Yemataw, Zerihun; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Zeberga, Awole; Blomme, Guy;
Year:    2016
Journal:    Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine    12    1
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) belongs to the order sctaminae, the family musaceae. The Musaceae family is subdivided into the genera Musa and Ensete. Enset is an important staple crop for about 20 million people in the country. Recent publications on enset ethnobotany are insignificant when compared to the diverse ethnolingustic communities in the country. Hence, this paper try to identify and document wealth of indigenous knowledge associated with the distribution, diversity, and management of enset in the country. METHODS The study was conducted in eight ethnic groups in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regional State. In order to identify and document wealth of indigenous knowledge, the data was collected mainly through individual interviews and direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 320 farm households, key informant interviews. Relevant secondary data, literature and inter-personal data were collected from unpublished progress report from National Enset Research Project, elderly people and senior experts. RESULTS Enset-based farming system is one of a major agricultural system in Ethiopia that serves as a backbone for at least of country's population. Farmers used three morphological characters, two growth attributes, disease resistance and five use values traits in folk classification and characterization of enset. A total of 312 folk landraces have been identified. The number of landraces cultivated on individual farms ranged from one to twenty eight (mean of 8.08 ∓ 0.93). All ethnic groups in the study area use five use categories in order of importance: kocho yield and quality, bulla quality, amicho use, fiber quality and medicinal/ritual value. Of the 312 landraces 245 landraces having more than two use types. Management and maintenance of on-farm enset diversity is influenced by systematic propagation of the landraces, exchange of planting material and selective pressure. CONCLUSION It can be concluded that the existing farmers' knowledge on naming, classification and diversity should be complemented with maintenance of the creative dynamics of traditional knowledge and transmission of the knowledge are crucial for constructing sustainable management.
Title:    Bacterial wilt of Enset (Ensete ventri-cosum) incited by Xanthomonas musacearum sp.n.
Authors:    YIRGOU, D; BRADBURY, J F;
Year:    1968
Journal:    Phytopathology    111-112    58(1)
Abstract:
Heavy losses in E. ventricosum, an important staple crop in Ethiopia, are caused by a wilt disease in which the inner folds of the drooping heartleaf are covered with greyish-brown patches. Eventually the leaf breaks at the petiole and yellowish bacterial slime oozes from the vascular bundles. All the leaves wilt, bend over, and wither, causing the death of the plant. A previously undescribed bacterium was isolated from affected plants and was pathogenic to enset and banana. The name X. musacearum Yirgou & Bradbury is proposed and details are given of the physiological and biochemical characteristics of.the pathogen. None of 19 other plant spp. inoculated showed symptoms within 5-6 weeks.
Title:    A note on wilt of banana caused by Enset wilt organism, Xanthomonas musacearum
Authors:    Yirgou, D; Bradbury, JF;
Year:    1974
Journal:    EA Agricultural and Forestry Journal    111-114    40
Abstract:
A naturally occurring wilt of banana caused by X. musacearum [RAM 47, 1389] was first observed in Kaffa Province (Ethiopia) on var. Du Casse Hybrid, which seem highly susceptible, and subsequently appeared sporadically in warm, moist areas in other provinces but not in irrigated banana plantations. Symptoms are at first a dull green lamina becoming scalded, flaccid, folded back on the midrib, brown and withered and finally collapsing at the petiole; the whole plant eventually rots. Sections of diseased fruit show yellowish blotches in the flesh and dark brown stripes in the placenta. Fruits turn brown and mummify. Insect transmission may occur since first symptoms on the fruit bunch are on bracts where insects congregate. Only enset was infected by isolates from banana. Control recommendations include destruction of diseased plants, prevention of leaf cutting or animal browsing in infested plots, disinfection of pruning knives, planting material to be taken from disease free fields, and, in the case of heavy infection, replacement with other crops for 2 yr. It is emphasized that care be taken to ensure that the bacterium is not spread to other parts of the world. ADDITIONAL td: The naturally-occurring banana wilt here described was first observed in Ethiopia in the cv. Du Casse Hybrid which appears to be highly susceptible. It has not yet been observed in irrigated plantations. The disease causes serious losses in ensete (Ensete ventricosa), where the most important means of transmission is through knives for leaf pruning; however, it is possible that insect transmission occurs in banana. Current control recommendations include the destruction of diseased plants, the disinfection of pruning or harvesting knives and the use of healthy planting material.
Title:    Ethnic-based diversity and distribution of enset (Ensete ventricosum ) clones in southern Ethiopia
Authors:    Z., Yemataw; H., Mohamed; M., Diro; T., Addis; G., Blomme;
Year:    2014
Journal:    Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment    244-251    6(7)
Abstract:
Traditionally, beer is obtained from the treatm ent and pro ocessing of three raw materials (barley malt, hops and water). From it, brewing wort fermented by the action of yeasts is obtained. Wort composition depends o n the quality and type of raw materials used, as well as the control of the various processing steps. Wor t composition also depends on the concentration and profiile of nitrogen compoun ds, such as proteins, polypeptides and ami no acids. In general, it has significant influence on the entire process and on the quality of the beer produced, especially collor, texture, turbidity, foam formation, CO2 retention a nd microbial nutrition. This paper presents a rev iew of nitrogen composition in brewing wort, its influence on brewing and the quality of the final product during its storage period.
Title:    Genetic variation for corm yield and other traits in Ethiopian enset (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman)
Authors:    Zerihun, Yemataw; Kassahun, Tesfaye; Tesfaye, Taddese; Tesfaye, Dejene; Sadik, Muzemil; Zeritu, Shashego; Daniel, Ambachew;
Year:    2016
Journal:    Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science    150-156    8(9)
Abstract:
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) is currently the major disease affecting cassava production in Eastern and Southern Africa. Breeding for resistance has been hampered by a lack of sources of resistance and the complexity of CBSD. This study was initiated to assess the possibility of exploiting inbreeding, as a strategy for generating new sources of resistance to CBSD. This was based on the premise that inbreeding increases the additive variance upon which selection for desirable phenotypes can be made. Eight cassava progenitors (S 0): Namikonga, 182/006661, Kigoma Red, Tz/130, Tz/140, 130040, 0040 and 100142 were selfed for one generation to produce the first inbred generation (S 1). The S 1 progenies generated were evaluated for two seasons (seedling and clonal evaluation trial) in a high CBSD pressure area. Promising clones were re-evaluated to confirm their CBSD reaction status. Results obtained showed that within each family, a few S 1 inbreds (1-15) had higher levels of resistance compared to the S 0 progenitors with the highest number observed in Tz/130. It is possible therefore to get transgressive progenies through inbreeding.
Title:    Fine root vertical distribution and temporal dynamics in mature stands of two enset (Enset ventricosum Welw Cheesman) clones
Authors:    Zewdie, Solomon; Fetene, Masresha; Olsson, Mats;
Year:    2008
Journal:    Plant and Soil    227-236    305(43102)
Abstract:
Quantification of the role of fine roots in the biological cycle of nutrients necessitates understanding root distribution, estimating root biomass, turnover rate and nutrient concentrations, and the dynamics of these parameters in perennial systems. Temporal dynamics, vertical distribution, annual production and turnover, and nitrogen use of fine roots (2 mm in diameter) were studied in mature (5-td-old) stands of two enset ( Ensete ventricosum ) clones using the in-growth bag technique. Live fine root mass generally decreased with increasing depth across all seasons except the dry period. Except for the dry period, more than 70% of the fine root mass was in the above 0-20 cm depth, and the fine root mass in the upper 0?10 cm depth was significantly higher than in the lowest depth (20?30 cm). Live fine root mass showed a seasonal peak at the end of the major rainy season but fell to its lowest value during the dry or short rainy season. The difference between the peak and low periods were significant ( p 0.05). Fine root nitrogen (N) use showed significant seasonal variation where the mean monthly fine root N use was highest during the major rainy season. There were significant effects on N use due to depths and in-growth periods, but not due to clones. Enset fine root production and turnover ranged from 2,339 to 2,451 kg ha?1 year?1 and from 1.55 to 1.80 year?1, respectively. Root N return, calculated from fine root turnover, was estimated at 64?65 kg ha?1 year?1. Fine root production, vertical distribution and temporal dynamics may be related to moisture variations and nutrient (N) fluxes among seasons and along the soil depth. The study showed that fine root production and turnover can contribute considerably to the carbon and nitrogen economy of mature enset plots. [td FROM AUTHOR]
Title:    Effect of drought/irrigation on proximate composition and carbohydrate content of two enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] clones.
Authors:    Zewdie, Solomon; Olsson, M; Fetene, Masresha;
Year:    2008
Journal:    Sinet, Ethiopian Journal of Science    81-88    31(2)
Abstract:
Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is an important root crop serving as a carbohydrate rich food source in Ethiopia. Perennial crops, like enset, are often exposed to recurrent dry periods which could greatly affect their growth, physiology and yield. The effect of induced drought/irrigation on the proximate composition and carbohydrate content of harvestable plant parts (pseudostem and corm) of two field grown enset clones (Ameratye and Yesherakinkye) was investigated. Proximate analysis showed that extended drought significantly (P<=0.05) reduced crude protein, ash content, potassium and phosphorus contents of enset pseudostem and corm of the two clones. On the other hand, crude fibber content and calcium levels were significantly higher in droughted groups than irrigated ones. There were no significant treatment effects on crude fat content and/or magnesium levels. Moreover, drought resulted in a significant increase in the level of soluble sugars and a decline in starch content of plant parts in both clones. Droughted plants accumulated 2-4 fold more soluble sugars than irrigated groups while the latter group gained 14-23% more starch. There was no significant difference between the two clones for the parameters considered. Low nutrient content of droughted plants could be the result of reduced nutrient uptake and assimilation caused by low soil water content and limited energy source (carbon skeleton). The observed increase in soluble sugars could be an indication of osmotic adjustment mechanisms in droughted enset plants. On the other hand, the decline in starch content could be due to reduced carbon assimilation and/or starch degradation.
Title:    Growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, biomass accumulation and partitioning in draughted and irrigated plants of two enset (Ensete ventricosum welw. Cheesman) clones
Authors:    Zewdie, Solomon; Olsson, Mats; Fetene, Masresha;
Year:    2007
Journal:    Journal of Agronomy    499-508    6(4)
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum ) plants grown in the middle and low altitudes are experiencing different degrees and length of summer drought every td. Information is lacking on plant responses to drought stress, underlying mechanisms of response and effect of drought on the growth and yield of enset. The effect of induced drought/irrigation on growth parameters, gas exchange and biomass accumulation and partitioning of enset clones was studied in the field at Guebre, Southern Ethiopia. One td old plants of two enset clones were either irrigated or draughted by with holding water for 90 days. Prolonged drought markedly and significantly reduced growth parameters of both enset clones. Drought stress significantly reduced specific leaf area and net assimilation rate and these reductions showed significant positive correlations with relative growth rate. Stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate and transpiration declined considerably after 60 and 90 days of drought. Despite the reduction in stomatal conductance, leaf water status showed little change. Quantum yield of PSII photochemistry showed a reversible diurnal depression which was accompanied by a marked increase in non-photochemical fluorescence quenching. Proportionally, draughted plants accumulated significantly more dry matter to belowground parts and drought appeared to increase harvest index of the corm. The enset clone Ameratye produced a significantly higher total dry matter than Yesherakinkye both under drought and/or irrigation. Both stomatal and non-stomatal factors might have contributed for the observed decline in carbon dioxide uptake rates of draughted plants. Present findings indicated that seasonal dry periods could considerably alter enset physiology and reduce growth and yield. Moreover, harvest index of the corm can be used as a selection criterion in screening enset clones suitable for drought prone areas. ? 2007 Asian Network for Scientific Information.
Title:    Diversity Over Time and Space in Enset Landraces (Ensete ventricosum ) in Ethiopia
Authors:    Zippel, Karin;
Year:    2005
Journal:    African Biodiversity    423-438    
Abstract:
Enset (Ensete ventricosum : Musaceae) is a staple crop in mixed subsistence farming systems in the most densely populated regions in southern and southwestern Ethiopia. Mainly grown for its starch-containing leaf sheaths and underground corm, it also serves purposes like animal feed, uses in households, and in agriculture. A large number of landraces are cultivated for manifold purposes, as well as for different requirements of site and climate. To retain the specific characteristics of each landrace, enset is propagated vegetatively by sprouts. In each region differently named landraces are grown. However, changing weather and soil causes phenotypic variability, and make identification difficult. Both increasing as well as decreasing number of landraces have been observed over the years in the different regions due to changing food preferences, climate, pests and diseases, cultivation systems, and infrastructure. Farmers tend to increase the number of cultivated landraces to broaden its use, and to respond to annual climate fluctuations.